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PART 1 lssues and Perspectives of Elementaryand Secondary Education
Chapter 1. Changing Society and Improving the Quality of Education
�1. Progress of Elementary and Secondary Education
l. New Education System after World War 2
2. Expansion of Access to Education
3. Upgrading Educational Standard
�2. Problems Relating to School Education
1. Issues of School Education
2. Issues Related to Pupils' Life Experiences
3. Coping with Social Changes
�3. Future Direction of Elementary and Secondary Education
1. Improving the Content and Method of Education
2. Improving School Management
3. Improving the Procedures for Selecting Entrants
4. Improving Student Guidance
5. Upgrading the Quality of Teachers and Enriching the Environment of Education
6. Renewed Appraisal of the School System
Chapter 2. Measures for the Enrichment of Elementary and Secondary Education
1. Overview
2. Improving the Content and Method of Education
3. Enrichment of Moral Education
4. Enrichment of Student Guidance and Career Guidance
(1) Enrichment of Student Guidance
(2) Enrichment of Career Guidance
5. Enrichment of Physical Education
6. Enrichment of Health Education
7. Response to Internationalization and Information Oriented Society
(1) Response to internationalization
(2) Response to Information Oriented Society
8. Diversification and Flexibility in Upper Secondary Education
(1) Promotion of Individualization in Upper Secondary School Education
(2) Promotion of Part-time and Correspondence Courses of Upper Secondary School
(3) Promotion of Vocational Education
(4) Improvement of the Upper Secondary School Entrance Examination System
9. Promotion of Kindergarten Education
10. Promotion of Special Education
11. Promotion of "Dowa" Education
12. Improvement and Consolidation of the Textbook System
13. Improvement of Educational Conditions, Including the Reduction of Maximum Class Size to 40
14. Improving the Qualification and Ability of Teachers
Chapter 3. Elementary and Secondary Education in Selected Countries
1. Overview
2. The United States of America
3. The United Kingdom
4. France
5. The Federal Republic of Germany
6. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
PART 2 Issues and Developments of Policies in Education, Science and Culture
Chapter 1. Promoting Educational Reform
1. Educational Reform for the 21st Century
2. Current Status of Educational Reform
(1) Efforts for Educational Reform
(2) Implementation of the Recommendations of the National Council on Educational Reform
(3) Reorganization of the National Institute for Educational Research and Other Measures for Educational Research
(4) Activating Local Education Administration
3. The 14th Central Council for Education
Chapter 2. Promoting Lifelong Learning
1. Outline
2. Developing Infrastructures for Lifelong Learning
(1) Development of Various System s for Promoting Lifelong Learning
(2) Development of Appropriate Mechanisms for Providing Learning Resources Information and Counselling Services
(3) Promotion of Cooperation among Lifelong Learning Facilities
(4) Transformation of Education, Research, Culture and Sports Facilities into More "Intelligent" Facilities
3. Lifelong Learning and Schools
(1) Lifelong Learning and the Role of Schools
(2) Schools of a New Type
(3) Diversification of Access to Schools
(4) Strengthening Cooperation Between Educational Institutions
(5) Opening School Activities and Facilities to Society
4. Social Education, Cultural Activities and Sports in Lifelong Learning
(1) Diversification and Enhancement in Learning Expectation
(2) New Development of Social Education, Cultural Activities and Sports
Chapter 3. Improvement and Enrichment of Higher Education
1. Outline
2. Promoting University Reform
(1) Deliberations of the University Council
(2) Improvement of University Education and System
3. Improving University Entrance Examinations
4. Improvement and Expansion of Higher Education of Institutions
5. Enhancement of Graduate Schools
6. Student Aid Programs
Chapter 4. Promoting Private Schools
1. Outline
2. Aid to Private Schools
(1) Subsidies to Private Institutions of Higher Education
(2) Subsidies to Private Elementary and Secondary Schools
(3) Subsidies to Private Special Training Schools
(4) Loan Programs of the Japan Private School Promotion Foundation
(5) Taxation System and Private Schools
Chapter 5. Promotion of Scientific Research
1. Outline
2. Financial Support for Scientific Research
3. Training of Young Researchers
4. Organizations in Scientific Research
5. Cumulating and Servicing Science Information
6. Promoting Important Areas of Basic Research
7. University-Private Industry Research Cooperation
8. Promoting Scientific International Exchange
Chapter 6. Promotion of Social Education
1. Overview
2. Improvement of Family Education
3. Improvement of Youth Education
4. Promoting Varieties of Educational Opportunities
(1) Learning Opportunities for Adults
(2) Learning Opportunities for Women
(3) Learning Opportunities for the Elderly
5. Providing the infrastructure for Social Education
6. Effective Use of Educational Media
Chapter 7. Promotion of Physical Education and Sports
1. Overview
2. Promoting Sports for All
3. Promoting Athletic Sports
4. Physical Education and Sports in University
Chapter 8. Promotion of Culture
1. Overview
2. Promotion and Diffusion of the Arts and Culture
3. Policies on the Japanese Language, Copyright and Religious Affairs
(1) Policy Implementations on the Japanese Language
(2) Updating the Copyright System
(3) Religious Juridical Persons and Administration of Religious Affairs
4. Inheriting and Preserving Traditional Culture
5. Consolidating Cultural Facilities
Chapter 9. Internationalization of Education, Culture and Sports
1. Overview
2. Upbringing of Japanese as a Member of the International Community
3. International Exchange and Cooperation in Education, Culture and Sports
4. Promotion of Student Exchange
5. Promotion of Japanese Language Education
6. Education of Japanese Children Living Abroad and Returnees from Abroad
Chapter 10. Education in an Information Oriented Society
1. Overview
2. Cultivating Ability of Making Use of Information
3. Use of New Information Media
4. Training Information Specialists
5. Making Educational Facilities Information-Oriented and Development of Science Information Networks
Chart 1-1-1 Organization of School System in 1989
Chart 1-1-2 0rgarmJzatJorv of School System in 1944
Chart 1-1-3 Trends in Enrollments
Chart 1-1-4 Trends in the Percentage of the Age Group of 6 to 14 Years Old Enrolled in Compulsory Education
Chart 1-1-5 Trends in the Enrollments in and the Advancement Rate to Upper Secondary Schools
Chart 1-1-6 Trends in Percentage Distribution or Upper Secondary School Students by Type of Education
Chart 1-1-7 Trends in the Number of Special Education Schools and Their Enrollments
Chart 1-1-8 Enrollment Rate for Pre-school Education(1987, 5 years old population)
Table 1-1-1 Results of the IEA Mathematics Study and Science Study
Table 1-1-2 Transition of Subjects in Elementary Schools
Table 1-1-3 Number of Kinds of Textbook (1989)
Chart 1-1-9 Trends in Pupil-Fulltime Teacher Ratio
Table 1-1-4 Results of a Survey on Pupils' Academic Attainment
Table 1-1-5 Pupils Attending JUKU (1985)
Chart 1-1-10 Why Do You Let Your Children GO to Juku?
Chart 1-1-11 The Number and the Permillage of Juveniles Who Were Given Guidance on Penal Code of Offenses
Table 1-1-6 Number of Public Schools Where School Bullying Occurred and the Number of Incidents (1987)
Chart 1-1-12 Student Violence in Schools
Chart 1-1-13 Children's Refusal to Attend School
Table 1-1-7 Number of Dropouts from Upper Secondary School
Chart 1-1-14 How Much Do Pupils Learn Habits for Daily Living
Chart 1-1-15 How Are Pupils Able to Handle Necessary Skills in Daily Life?
Table 1-1-8 Important Items to Cultivate in Children
Table 1-1-9 Types of Guidance Parents Expect from Schools
Table 1-1-10 Extension Courses Provided by Upper Secondary Schools
Table 1-1-11 Upper Secondary School Students Studying Abroad
Table 1-1-12 Computers at Schools
Table 1-1-13 Proportion of Schools with Computers
Table 1-1-14 Types of Subjects Parents Expect from Elementary Schools
Table 1-1-15 The Number of Young Foreign People Invited under the JET Program, by Country of Origin

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