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PART I New Directions in School Education
Chapter 1. Education that Values the Individual
Section 1. The Status of School Education
1. Children's School Life
2. Juku Attendance
3. Evaluation by a Single Criterion
4. Bullying, Refusal to Attend School, and Other Problems
5. Changes in Children's Environment
Section 2. School Education in an Era of Lifelong Learning
1. Meeting the Need for Lifelong Learning
2. Coping with Change
Section 3. Education Based on Respect for the Individual
1. Implementing the New Courses of Study
2. Implementing the Five-Day School Week
3. Reforming Upper Secondary Education
4. Improving Career Guidance
Chapter 2. The Aims of the Five-Day School Week
Section 1. Basic Thinking Behind the Five-Day School Week
1. Today' Educational Issues and the Five-Day School Week
2. The Significance of the Five-Day School Week
3. Phased Implementation of the Five-Day School Week
Section 2. Implementation of the Monthly Five-Day School Week
1. Implementation in Public Schools
2. Implementation in Private Schools
3. Children' Activities on Free Saturdays
Section 3. Research Concerning a Semimonthly
1. Research and Survey Activities in Pilot Schools
2. Public Opinion Trends and Attitudes of Parents
3. Nationwide Implementation of a Semimonthly Five-Day School Week
Section 4. Achievement of a Smooth Transition to the Five-Day School Week and the Outlook for the Future
1. Reasons for Approval or Disapproval of the Five-Day School Week
2. Smooth Implementation of the Five-Day School Week
3. The Outlook for the Future
Chapter 3. Creating Upper Secondary Schools with Distinctive Characteristics
Section 1. Greater Emphasis on Individuality and Diversity in Upper Secondary Education
1. Reform of Upper Secondary Education: Background and Perspectives
2. Efforts and Measures So Far
3. Developing New Upper Secondary Education Under the New Course of Study
4. Promoting Reform of Upper Secondary Education in Line with the Report of the Central Council for Education
Section 2. Establishment of the Integrated Course
1. Reasons for Establishing the Integrated Course
2. Characteristics of the Integrated Course
Section 3. Improvement of Systems of Selecting Entrants to Upper Secondary Schools
1. Basic Direction of Improvement
2. Specific Improvement Measures and Progress
3. Acceptance of Transfer Students
Chapter 4. Toward Career Guidance as Guidance for Life
Section 1. Trends and Issues in Career Guidance in Lower Secondary Schools
1. Basic Thinking
2. Trends and Issues
Section 2. Ending Dependence on Commercially Produced Tests
1. Ending Dependence
2. Situation and Issues in Fiscal 1993
Section 3. A New Approach to Career Guidance
1. Problems to Be Solved
2. Perspectives for a Transition in Career Guidance
3. Expansion and Enhancement of Instructive Experiences
PART II Recent Trends and Developments in Government Policies in Education, Science and Culture
Chapter 1. Integrated Implementation of Educational Policies
Section 1. Educational Policies to Meet the Needs of a New Era
1. Social Change and Educational Administration: The Response to Change and the Quest for Unchanging Values
2. Studying Basic Approaches to Educational Policies: Broad Perspectives and Long-Range Visions
Section 2. Promotion of Educational Reform
1. Reports of Councils and Directions for Reform
2. Progress Toward Implementation
3. Future Approaches
Section 3. Enhancement of Educational Policies at the Regional Level
1. Locally Based Activities and Regional Revitalization Through Educational Policies
2. Revitalization of Boards of Education
3. Promotion of Life Planning by Teachers and Other Personnel
Chapter 2. Preparing for a Lifelong Learning Society
Section 1. Why Japan Needs to Build a Lifelong Learning Society
1. The harmful effects of a society preoccupied with academic credentials:
2. Increasing demand for learning as society matures:
3. The need for learning to cope with social and economic change:
Section 2. Developing a Framework for Promoting Lifelong Learning
1. Development of Administrative Organizations and Related Measures
2. Lifelong Learning Councils
3. Prefectural Lifelong Learning Promotion Plans
4. Center Facilities for the Promotion of Lifelong Learning
Section 3. Stimulating Demand for Learning and Providing Learning Opportunities
1. Stimulating Demand for Learning
2. Providing Learning Opportunities
Section 4. Evaluating Learning Achievements
1. Evaluating Learning Achievements and Building a Lifelong Learning Society
2. Specific Measures
3. Granting School Credits
Chapter 3. Enhancing Primary and Secondary Education
Section 1. Fostering Richness of Spirit
1. Improvement of Moral Education
2. Volunteer Education
Section 2. Student Guidance Based on Respect for the Individual
1. The Philosophy Behind Student Guidance
2. Measures to Enhance Student Guidance
3. Problems and Measures in Regard to Student Guidance
Section 3. Education that Teaches Respect for the Environment and Education Designed to Increase Interest in and Understanding of Nature and Foster Scientific Perception and Thinking
1. The Significance and Current Status of Environmental Education in School Education
2. Measures to Promote Environmental Education
3. Enrichment of Scientific Perception and Thinking
Section 4. Physical Education and Health Education
1. Enhancing Physical Education and Sports in Schools
2. Maintaining Physical and Mental Health
Section 5. Kindergarten Education Based on Respect for Individual Children
1. Trends and Issues in Kindergarten Education
2. Promotion and Enhancement of Kindergarten Education
Section 6. Special Consideration for Children with Physical and Mental Disabilities
1. Trends in Special Education
2. Special Education Promotion Measures
Section 7. Promotion of Dowa Education
1. Basic Thinking
2. Measures to Promote Dowa Education
Section 8. Developing Better Textbooks
1. Publishing and Distributing Textbooks
2. Improving the Textbook Authorization System
3. Free Supply of Compulsory Education Textbooks
Section 9. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and School Education
Section 10. Providing High-Caliber Teachers
1. Improving Staffing Levels of Teachers and Other Personnel
2. The Teacher Training and Certification System and Teacher Appointment Systems
3. Enhancing In-Service Training
4. Improving School Management
Section 11. Developing Spacious and Pleasant School Facilities and Attractive Teaching Materials
1. Improving Public School Facilities
2. Improving Teaching Materials
Chapter 4. Toward Diversified Development of Higher Education
Section 1. Ongoing Reform of Higher Education
1. Basic Directions of Reform
2. Specific University Reform Efforts
3. Revitalization of Organization and Management
4. Collection and Distribution of Information About University Reform
Section 2. Improvement of University Entrant Selection
1. Promotion of the Use of NCUEE Examinations
2. Toward Distinctive and Diversified Entrant Selection
3. Improvement of the System of Admission on Recommendation
Section 3. Toward Sophisticated, Individualized, and Revitalized Higher Education
1. Directions for the Enhancement and Development of Higher Education
2. Enhancement of National Universities
3. Enhancement of Local Public and Private Universities
4. Development of Human Resources in Science and Engineering
5. Improvement of Medical and Dental Education and Training of Medical Technicians
6. Enhancement of Colleges of Technology
Section 4. Support for Human-Resource Development Through Student Aid Programs
1. Programs of the Japan Scholarship Foundation
2. Programs Administered by Incorporated Nonprofit Organizations, Local Governments, School Corporations, and Other Organizations
Chapter 5. Promotion of Private Schools
Section 1. The Important Role of Private Schools
Section 2. Measures to Promote Private Schools
1. Financial Aid to Private Universities and Other Institutions of Higher Education
2. Financial Aid to Private Upper Secondary and Other Schools
3. Subsidies and Grants to Private Special Training Colleges
4. Loans from the Japan Private School Promotion Foundation
5. Tax Systems for Private Schools
Chapter 6. Promoting Scientific Research
Section 1. Future Directions in Science Policy
Section 2. Supporting Scientific Research Through Research Funds and Facility Improvement
1. Current Levels of Research Funds in Universities and Other Institutions
2. Expansion of Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
3. Improving the Research Environment: Enhancement of Research Equipment
Section 3. Training and Recruiting Young Researchers
Section 4. The Role of Research Institutions in Promoting Scientific Research
1. New Directions for Research Institutions
2. The Role and Activities of Academic Societies
Section 5. Developing Information and Resources Relating to Scientific Research
1. Collecting and Providing Science Information
2. Improving Scientific Resources
Section 6. Prioritized Promotion of Basic Research
1. Challenging the Mysteries of the Universe: Astronomical Research
2. Exploring the Secrets of Matter: Accelerator Science
3. Realizing Human Dreams through Rockets: Space Science
4. Developing Energy Sources for the Twenty-first Century: Fusion Research
5. Understanding the World's Regions: Area Studies
6. Explaining Life Phenomena: The Life Sciences
7. Predicting Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions: Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Prediction Research
8. Preserving Our Precious Planet: Global Environmental Science
9. Promoting Antarctic Research Programs
10. Conducting Research Under the New Program System
Section 7. Scientific Research in Cooperation with Society
1. Research Cooperation Between Universities and the Private and Public Sectors
2. Activities of Research Support Organizations
Section 8. Promoting International Scientific Exchange in Which Japan Takes the Initiative
1. The Importance of International Scientific Exchange
2. Promoting International Joint Research and Researcher Exchange
3. Scientific Exchange Through the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
4. Cooperation with the United Nations University
Chapter 7. New Horizons in Social Education
Section 1. Enhancement and Revitalization of Social Education
Section 2. Promotion of Learning Activities for Adults and the Elderly
1. Learning Activities for Adults
2. Learning Activities for the Elderly
Section 3. Improvement of Youth Education
1. The Need for Out-of-School Activities for Youth
2. Measures to Enhance Out-of-School Activities for Youth
Section 4. Enhancement of Home Education
1. Provision of Learning and Interaction Opportunities for Parents
2. Provision of Information and Advice
Section 5. Promotion of Learning and Social Participation for Women
1. Creation of a Gender-Equal Society and Women's Education
2. Development of Learning Opportunities
3. Promotion of Participation in Society
Section 6. Enhancement of Conditions for Social Education
1. Development of Varied Social Education Facilities
2. Improvement of Social Education Leaders
Section 7. Utilization of Educational Media
1. Promotion of Educational Media
2. Development and Supply of Audiovisual Teaching Materials
3. Training of Specialists in Audiovisual Education
4. Development of Audiovisual Centers/Libraries
Chapter 8. Promoting Sports
Section 1. Approaches to Promoting Sports
1. Why Is Promoting Sports Important?
2. Basic Directions
Section 2. Promoting Sports-for-All
1. Developing Sports Venues
2. Fostering and Utilizing Able Sports Instructors
3. Sponsoring Sports Events
4. Diversifying Sports Activities and Supporting Sports Organizations
5. Promoting Sports-for-All to Meet the Needs of an Aging Society
Section 3. Promoting Competitive Sports
1. Fostering Top Athletes
2. Promoting Professional Sports
Chapter 9. Toward a Culture-Communicating Society
Section 1. Culture Promotion Measures
1. The Need for Communicating Culture
2. Enhancing Government Systems for Promoting Culture
3. Budgetary Provisions for Culture Promotion
4. The Japan Arts Fund
5. Culture and the Taxation System
Section 2. Raising the Standard of Artistic Creation
1. Encouraging Artistic Creation
2. Developing, Training, and Recognizing Artists
3. Private-Sector Support for Artistic and Cultural Activities
4. Developing the New National Theatre
Section 3. Promoting Local Arts and Culture
1. Developing Local Cultural Activities
2. Expanding Opportunities for Art Appreciation at the Local Level
3. Improving and Enriching Local Cultural Facilities
4. Promoting International Exchange at the Regional Level
Section 4. Japanese Language Policy, Copyright Policy, and Administration of Religious Corporations
1. Contributing to the Beauty and Richness of the Japanese Language
2. Improving the Copyright System
Section 5. Protecting and Utilizing Cultural Properties
1. Developing New Cultural Property Protection Measures
2. Conserving National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties
3. Preserving and Utilizing Historic Sites and Other Monuments
4. Conserving and Utilizing Historic Settlements and Streets
5. Preserving and Transmitting Intangible Cultural Properties and Folk-Cultural Properties
Section 6. National Cultural Facilities
1. National Museums and National Museums of Art
2. National Research Institutes of Cultural Properties
3. The National Theatre
Chapter 10. Internationalization of Education, Culture, and Sports
Section 1. International Exchange in a New Era
Section 2. Development of Japanese Citizens Living in the International Community
1. Promoting Education for International Understanding
2. Improving Foreign Language Education
Section 3. International Exchange and Cooperation in Education, Culture, and Sports
1. International Exchange and Cooperation Mechanisms
2. International Exchange and Cooperation in Education
3. World Cultural Links
4. International Exchange and Cooperation in Sports
5. Cooperation Through International Agencies
6. Cooperation with Developing Countries
Section 4. Student Exchange Aimed at the Twenty-first Century
1. Promotion of the 100,000 Foreign Students Plan
2. Development of Foreign Student Acceptance Systems
3. Establishment of Assistance Systems for Japanese Studying Abroad
Section 5. Global Expansion of Japanese Language Education
1. Growing Enthusiasm for Japanese Language Learning
2. Helping Learners of Japanese Throughout the World
3. The Future of Japanese Language Education
Section 6 Improving Education for Japanese Children Overseas and Children Returning from Overseas
1. Improving Education for Japanese Children Overseas
2. Improving Education for Children Returning from Overseas
Chapter 11. The Shift to an Information-Oriented Society: Implications for Education, Science, Culture, and Sports
Section 1. Responses of Educational Administration to the Shift to an Information-Oriented Society
1. Promoting the Shift to an Information-Oriented Society in Education, Science, Culture, and Sports
2. Responding to the Development of Multimedia Through Educational Policies
Section 2. Developing Human Resources to Cope with the Shift to an Information-Oriented Society
1. Primary and Secondary Education
2. Higher Education
Section 3. Utilizing and Developing New Information Media
1. Using Computers in School Education
2. Developing New Learning Systems
Section 4. Promoting the Supply of Lifelong Learning Information and Scientific Research Information and Developing Information Networks
1. Promoting the Supply of Lifelong Learning Information
2. Promoting Swift and Accurate Access to Science Information
3. Developing Science Information Databases
Section 5. Developing a Copyright Policy for the Shift to an Information-Oriented Society
1. Promoting Public Awareness of Copyright Protection
2. Studying the Use of Works and Institutional Issues for Multimedia
Chapter 12. Educational Facilities for the Twenty-first Century
Section 1. Developing Educational Facilities for a New Era
1. Measures to Create Enriching and Pleasant Educational Facilities
2. Maintaining an Enhanced Educational Environment
Section 2. Developing School Facilities with Distinctive Characteristics
1. Distinctive School Facilities to Meet the Changing Demand for Learning
2. Providing Sophisticated and Diversified Educational and Research Environments in National Universities
Figure I.1.16 What Scholastic Ability and Other Skills Should Be Developed Through School Education?
Figure I.1.17 Is the Educational Function of the Family Weakening?
Figure I.1.18 Reasons for the Decline in Education in the Home
Figure I.1.19 Is Descipline the Role of the School or the Family?
Figure I.1.20 Should Adults in the Community Become More Involved in Children's Development?
Figure I.2.4. The Effect of Modifications to Class-Hour Management on the Workload of Kindergarten and Elementary School Children
Figure I.2.5. Opinions Regarding an Increases in the Number of Saturday School Holidays (School Children, Teachers, and Parents)
Figure I.2.6. Opinions Regarding an Increases in the Number of Saturday School Holidays (Parents, by Gender)
Figure I.2.7. Parental Attitudes Toward a Further Increase in Saturday School Holidays (by Type of School)
Figure I.2.8. Parental Approval or Disapproval of the Five-Day School Week
Figure I.2.9. Attitudes Toward a Semimonthly Five-Day School Week of Patents with Children Attending Pilot Schools
Figure I.2.10. Reasons for Approval of an increase in the Frequency of Saturday School Holidays (Parents)
Figure I.2.11. Reasons for Disapproval of an increase in the Frequency of Saturday School Holidays (Parents)
Figure I.2.12. Parents' Wishes in Connection with the Five-Day School Week
Figure I.3.1 Trends in Advancement Rates to Upper Secondary School
Figure I.3.2 Trends in Student Composition by Type of Course
Figure I.3.3 Trends in Numbers of Upper Secondary Students and Schools
Table I.3.2 Availability of Subjects
Table I.3.3 Increasing Flexibility in Grade Completion Certification
Education Delivery System and Class Schedule
Education Delivery System and Class Schedule
First-year timetable
Example of interschool Cooperation
Table I.3.4 Curriculum at Iwayado High School
Table I.3.5 Subjects Offered at Iwayado High School
Table I.3.6 Subjects Offered at Iwayado High School
Table I.3.7 Improvement of Systems of Selecting Entrants to Upper Secondary Schools
Figure I.3.4 Network of the Upper Secondary School Transfer Student Admission Information System
Figure II.2.1 Efforts to Build a Lifelong Learning Society
Figure II.2.2 Projects Aimed at Developing Systems for the Provision of Information for Lifelong Learning Activities
Table II.3.1 Reasons Cited by Dropouts
Figure II.3.1 Age Distribution of AIDS Patients and HIV Carriers (as of April 30, 1994)
Table II.3.2 Percentages of Schoolchildren Provided with School Lunches (as of May 1, 1993)
Table II.3.3 Reduction of Fees and Other Expenses per Kindergarten Child Through Kindergarten Attendance Encouragement Subsidies in Fiscal 1994
Table II.3.4 Trends in the Number of Certificates Issued for Appointments Under the Special Arrangement for Part-time Teachers Without Teaching Certificates
Table II.3.5 Examples of Lessons Provided by People Teaching Under the Special Arrangement for Part-time Teachers Without Teaching Certificates (Fiscal 1993)
Table II.3.6 Examples of Hands-on Activities as Part of Induction Training for Beginning Teachers (Fiscal 1993)
Figure II.3.3 Trend in Age at Time of Promotion to Principal or Deputy Principal
Table II.4.1 Cirriculum Reform Efforts (July 1993)
Figure II.4.1 Multiple Oppoutunities to Take National University Examinations (Scheduled for Fiscal 1995)
Figure II.4.2 Trends in Access to Higher Education
Figure II.5.1 Trends in Current Expenditures of Private Institutions of Higher Education and Amounts of Subsidies
Table II.5.1 Special Subsidies as Percentages of Total Subsidies for Current Expenditures to Private Institutions of Higher Education
Figure II.5.2 Trends in Subsidies for Educational and Research Equipment
Figure II.5.3 Trends in Current Expenditures of and Subsidies to Private Upper Secondary Schools
Table II.6.1 Research Funds by Type of Organization and the Share of Public Funds (Fiscal 1992)
Table II.6.2 International Comparison of University Research Funds (Fiscal 1991)
Figure II.6.1 Japan's Science and Technology Budget (Fiscal 1994)
Table II.6.6 Interuniversity Research Institutes (Fiscal 1994)
Figure II.6.3 Structure of the Science Information System
Figure II.6.4 Structure of the Science Information Network (SINET)
Figure II.6.5 National Universities' Joint Research with the Private and Public Sectors
Figure II.6.6 National Universities' Acceptance of Commissioned Research
Figure II.6.7 Acceptance of Commissioned Researchers
Figure II.6.8 Grants and Endowments Received by National Universities
Table II.7.1 Classes, Courses, and Other Programs Provided by Boards of Education and Social Education Facilities (Citizen's Public Halls and Other Facilities)
Figure II.7.1 Overall Plan of the National Olynpic Memorial Youth Center
Figure II.7.2 Trends in the Number of Social Education Facilities
Figure II.7.3 Trends in the Number of People Using Social Education Facilities
Figure II.7.4 Public Library Trends
Table II.7.3 Trends in the Number of Social Education Leaders and Other Personnel
Figure II.8.1 Medal Tallies in the Olympic Games and the Asian Games
Table II.10.1 Assistant Foreign Language Teachers (as of July, 1994)
Table II.10.2 Countries with Which Japan Has Concluded Cultural Agreement (as of August 1994)
Table II.10.3 Main UNESCO Programs in Which Japan Is Cooperating
Figure II.10.1 Trends in the Number of Foreign Students (as of May 1 each year)
Figure II.10.2 Foreign Students by Region of Origin (as of May 1, 1993)
Table II.10.4 Foreign Students by Country or Region of Origin (as of May 1, 1993)
Figure II.10.5 Trends in the Number of People Learning Japanese
Table II.10.5 Results of the Japanese Language Teaching Competency Test
Table II.10.6 Results of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test (Fiscal 1993)
Table II.10.7 Teachers Sent Overseas Under the REX Program
Table II.11.1 Installation of Computers in Public Schools (as of March 31, 1993)
Table II.11.2 Trends in the Number of Information-Related Courses in Upper Secomdary Schools and in the Number of Students Taking These Courses
Table II.11.3 Trends in Information-Related Higher Education Courses and Places for Entrants
Figure II.12.1 Areas of National School Facilities According to Age (as of May 1, 1994)
Low-Interest Loan System for Sports Facilities
Programme for Assisting NGOs in Developing Literacy Resource Centers for Girls and Women
Pilot Model Research on Making Educational Facilities More Intelligent

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