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Information of The Publication
Part 1 Promotion of Scientific Research
Introduction Issues and Perspectives of Science Policy
1 Research Environments
2 Training and Securing of Researchers
(1) Improvement and strengthening of graduate schools
(2) Strengthening of fellowship systems
(3) Promotion of the mobility of researchers
3 Priority Promotion of Scientific Research
4 International Contribution through Scientific Research
Chapter 1. Promotion of Scientific Research
1 Significance of Scientific Research
1 Significance of Scientific Research
2 Fundamental Views of the Promotion of Science
2 Past Development of Scientific Research
1 Period of Postwar Reconstruction
2 Period of Rapid Economic Growth
3 Period of Stable Economic Growth
3 Systems for the Promotion of Scientific Research
1 Organization of National Science Administration
2 Responsibilities of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
3 Mechanism of Science Administration
Chapter 2. Improvement and Expansion of the Basis of Scientific Research
1 Enrichment of Research Systems
1 University Faculties and Graduate Schools
2 Research Institutes of the University
3 National Inter-University Research Institutes
4 Strengthening of Research Systems
5 Issues Concerning Research Systems Including Universities
2 Expansion and Improvement of Research Funding and Research Facilities and Equipment
1 Present Situation of Research Funds
2 Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
3 Improvement and Expansion of Research Facilities
4 Enrichment of Research Equipment
5 Research Environments of University Researchers
6 Issues Concerning Research Funds and the Direction of Improvement
3 Training and Securing of Researchers
1 Present Situation of the Training and Securing of Researchers
2 Career Selection of Young Researchers and Their Research Environments
3 Pressing Issues of the Training and Securing of Researchers
4 Strengthening of Systems for Distribution of Science Information
1 Improvement of Systems for Distribution of Science Information
2 Issues Concerning Systems for Distribution of Science Information
5 Promotion of University-Industry Research Cooperation
1 Systems in Universities for Cooperation with Industry
2 Private Donations and Endowed Chairs and Divisions
3 Other Forms of Cooperation
4 Issues Concerning University-Industry Research Cooperation
6 Promotion of International Scientific Exchange
1 Exchange of Researchers
2 Scientific Cooperation with Developing Countries
3 Cooperation through International Organizations
4 International Cooperative Research
5 Issues Concerning International Scientific Exchange
Chapter 3. Trends of Scientific Research in Japan
1 Research Level of Japan
1 Method of International Comparison of Research Level
2 Number of Papers Appearing in Scientific Journals and Magazines and Citation Frequencies
3 Number of Invited Speakers at International Scientific Meetings
4 Subjective Evaluation by Researchers
5 Research Level of Japan
2 Trends of Scientific Research in Specific Fields
1 Humanities and Social Sciences
2 Mathematical and Physical Sciences
3 Information Science
4 Earth and Space Science
5 Materials Science
6 Electrical Engineering
7 Structural and Functional Engineering
8 Life Science
3 Promotion of Important Basic Research
1 Astronomical Research
2 Accelerator Science
3 Space Science
4 Fusion Research
5 Life Science
6 Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
7 Ocean Science
8 Superconductivity
9 Global Environmental Research
10 Antarctic Research and Observation
11 Large-scale Research Projects under the New Program System
PART 2 Recent Trends and Developments in Government Policies in Education, Science and Culture
Chapter 1. Implementation of Educational Reform
1 Educational Reform for the 21st Century
2 Progress of Educational Reform
(1) Efforts for Educational Reform
(2) Implementation of the Council's Recommendations
(3) Activation of Local Educational Administration
3 Report of the Central Council for Education at its 14th Session
Chapter 2. Promotion of Lifelong Learning
1 Outline of Policies
2 Development of Infrastructures for Lifelong Learning
(1) Development of Mechanisms for Promoting Lifelong Learning
(2) Lifelong Learning Festivals
(3) Evaluation of Lifelong Learning Achievements
(4) Development of Relevant Mechanisms for the Provision of Learning Resource Information and Counseling Services
(5) Cooperation among Lifelong Learning Facilities
(6) Transformation of Educational and Cultural Facilities into "Intelligent Facilities"
3 Lifelong Learning and Institutions of Formal Education
(1) Lifelong Learning and the Role of Institutions of Formal Education
(2) New Types of Educational Institutions
(3) Diversification of the Ways of Access to Formal Education
(4) Strengthening Mutual Cooperation among Different Educational Institutions
(5) Opening the Functions and Physical Facilities of Educational Institutions to the Community
4 Lifelong Learning and Activities in the Fields of Non-formal Education, Culture and Sports
(1) Demands for More Diversified and Advanced Learning
(2) New Development in Non-formal Education and Culture and Sports Activities
Chapter 3. Improvement and Enrichment of Elementary and Secondary Education
1 Outline of Policies
2 Improvement of Content and Methods of Teaching
3 Enrichment of Moral Education
4 Enrichment of Student Guidance and Career Guidance
5 Reforms in Upper Secondary School Education
6 Promotion of Kindergarten Education
7 Promotion of Special Education
8 Promotion of Education for Eliminating Social Discrimination
9 Improvement of Textbook System
10 Reduction of the Maximum Class Size to 40 and the Improvement of Other Educational Conditions
11 Improvement of the Quality and Capabilities of Teachers
Chapter 4. Improvement and Enrichment of Higher Education
1 Outline of Policies
2 Promotion of the Reform of Higher Education
(1) Generalization of the Standards for the Establishment of Universities and the Self-evaluation of Institutions of Higher Education
(2) Enhancement of Graduate School
(3) Improvement of the System of Academic Degrees
(4) Coping with a Lifelong Learning Society
3 Improvement and Enhancement of the Institutions of Higher Education
4 Improvement of Procedures for the Selection of Entrants
5 Expansion of Student Aid Programs
Chapter 5. Promotion of Private Educational Institutions
1 Outline of Policies
2 Financial Aid of the Government to Private Educational Institutions
(1) Financial Aid to Private Universities
(2) Financial Aid to Private Upper Secondary Schools
(3) Financial Aid to Private Special Training Schools
(4) Loan Programs of the Japan Private School Promotion Foundation
(5) Favorable Measures Regarding Taxation
(6) Educational Institutions in Foreign Countries Established by Japanese School Corporations
Chapter 6. Promotion of "Social Education"
1 Outline of Policies
2 Enrichment of Family Education
3 Enrichment of Out-of-School Education for Youths
(1) Enhancement of the Activities of Youth Organizations
(2) Enrichment of Community Programs for Youths
(3) Improvement of Youth Education Facilities
4 Provision of Diverse Learning Opportunities
(1) Learning Activities of Adults
(2) Learning Activities of Women
(3) Learning Activities of the Aged
5 Development of Infrastructures for "Social Education"
6 Utilization of "Education Media"
Chapter 7. Promotion of Physical Education, Sports and Health Education
1 Outline of Policies
2 Establishment of the Sports Promotion Fund
3 Promotion of Sports for All
4 Promotion of Competitive Sports
5 Enrichment of Physical Education in Schools
6 Enrichment of Health Education in Schools
Chapter 8. Promotion of Culture
1 Outline of Policies
2 Assistance through the Japan Arts Fund
3 Encouragement of Creative Artistic Activities
4 Promotion of Local Cultural Activities
5 Policies Concerning the Japanese Language, Copyright and Religious Affairs
(1) Enhancement of Policies on the Japanese Language
(2) Development of the Copyright System
(3) Religious Corporation and Government Services Related to Religions
6 Inheritance and Preservation of Traditional Culture
7 Development of Cultural Facilities
Chapter 9. Internationalization of Education, Culture and Sports
1 Outline of Policies
2 Development of Japanese Citizens Living in the International Community
3 International Exchange and Cooperation in the Fields of Education, Culture and Sports
4 Promotion of Student Exchange
5 Promotion of the Teaching of the Japanese Language to Foreigners
6 Enrichment of Educational Programs for Japanese Children Staying Overseas, as well as Those Who Have Returned Home after Long Stays Overseas
Chapter 10. Information Oriented Society and the Education Sector
1 Outline of Policies
2 Development of Information Literacy
3 Utilization of New Information Media
4 Training of Information Engineers
5 Provision of More Information Media to Educational and Cultural Institutions and the Development of Information Networks
Chart 1 Organization of National Research Administration
Chart 2 Organization of the Science Council
Table 1 Major Reports and Recommendations by the Science Council
Chart 3 Research Institutes and Researchersl. Number of Research Institutes by Sector
Chart 3 Research Institutes and Researchers2. Number of Researchers by Sector and by Field
Table 2 Research Institutes Attached to Universities by Field
Table 3 National Inter-University Research Institutes
Chart 4 Trends in the Amount of Research Expenditures by Sector
Table 4 International Comparison of General Research Expenditures
Chart 5 Government Budget Related to Science and Technology (FY1991)
Table 5 International Comparison of Research Expenditures in University (1987)
Chart 6 Trends of Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research: Budgetary Appropriation, Application and Adoption
Chart 7 Government Expenditure for Developing Facilities of National Educational Institutions
Table 6 Research Expenditures Managed by University Research Units (Chairs, Courses, Divisions, etc.) (1990)
Table 7 Breakdown by Purpose of Research Expenditures Managed by University Research Units (Chairs, Courses, Divisions, etc.) (1990)(thousand yen)
Chart 8 Government Budget for Research Equipment in Universities
Chart 9 Items of Research Expenditure Especially Felt Insufficient
Table 8 Problems of Research Facilities Confronted by Researchers (1990)
Chart 10 Reasons for Failure in Realizing International Exchange
Table 9 Number of University Teachers by Type of Position (1990)
Table 10 Employment Situation of New Doctor's Degree Holders by Field (1990)
Table 11 Main Features of the JSPS Fellowship Program for Young Japanese Researchers
Table 12 Changes in the Number of Awardees and the Rate of Fellowships of the JSPS Fellowship Program for Young Japanese Researchers
Chart 11 Reasons Given by Those Who Completed a Master's Course for Taking a Job without Proceeding to a Doctor's Course
Chart 12 Reasons Given by Young Researchers for Taking a Job in Private Companies
Chart 13 National and International Networks of Science Information (1991)
Table 13 Trends in the Number of Universities and Counterpart Companies Conducting University- Industry Cooperative Research
Chart 14 Trends in the Number of University-Industry Cooperative Projects and the Number of Researchers Accepted in Universities
Chart 15 Trends in Contract Research Projects Commissioned by Industrial Firms
Chart 16 Trends in the Number of Contract Researchers Accepted from Industrial Firms
Chart 17 Trends in Private Donations for Educational and Scientific Purposes
Chart 18 International Exchange of Researchers under the Auspices of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
Chart 19 JSPS Program for Cooperation with Southeast Asian Countries: Management of Core University System
Table 14 Examples of Japan's Participation in Intergovernmental Research Projects
Table 15 Examples of Major International Cooperation
Table 16 Examples of International Cooperative Projects of ICSU
Table 17 An Example of International Cooperative Projects of the United Nations
Chart 20 Indicators for the Evaluation of Scientific Research
Chart 21 International Comparison in the Number of Papers Appearing in Scientific Journals and Magazines and Their Citation Frequencies
Chart 22 International Comparison in the Citation Indexes for Scientific Papers from Major Nations
Chart 23 Level of Japan's Scientific Research: Evaluation by Japanese Scientists
Chart 24 Level of Scientific Research in Selected Countries: Evaluation by Japanese Scientists (1989)
Table 18 Level of Scientific Research by Field: Average Values of Evaluation by Japanese Scientists (1989) (10 full points)

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