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Information of The Publication
Part1 Human Resources in Science and Technology Required of Japan in the Future
1.1 Fostering and Securing Human Resources in Science and Technology for an Advanced Science-and Technology-Oriented Nation
1.1.1 The Importance of Fostering and Securing Human Resourcesin Scienceand Technology in Japan inthe Future
1.1.2 Expectationson Human Resourcesin Scienceand Technology Researchers as"Knowledge Cre-ators" Diverse Personnel Engagedin Sci-enceand Technology
1.2 Trends in Human Resources in Science and Technology in Japan and Other Nations
1.2.1 Human Resourcesin Scienceand Technology Trendsin Japan and Other Nations Stock and Flow of Human Re-sources in Scienceand Technology Estimate of Human Resources in Scienceand Technology in the Future World-class Human Resources in Scienceand Technology
1.2.2 Policy Trends in Human Re-sources in Scienceand Technology in Major Countries
1.3 How Human Resources in Science and Technology Should be Fostered and Secured
1.3.1 Construction of an Environment for Scienceand Technology Activities Attracting Excellent Personnel and In-spiring them to Displaytheir Creativity Attractiveness o fOccupations Engaged in Science and Technology Ap-pealing To Excellent Personnel Expansion of Opportunities for Women,Aged,etc.to Play an Active Part in Research Research Environments Inspiring Researchers to Display their Creativity
1.3.2 1.3.2 Fostering in Science and Technology Human Resources Rich in Creativity High-Level Specialist Education Clutivat eCreativity as Research Development of Human Resources in Science and Technology Responding to the Needs of the Society
1.3.3 Realization of Society Fostering Human Resources in Science and Technology People's Interest and Understanding Necessary to Secure Human Resources in Science and Technology Measures to Increase Interest in and Understanding of Science and Technology
Part2 The Current Status of Science and Technologyin Japan and Other Nations
2.1 R&D Expenditures
2.1.1 Total R&D Expenditures Trends in R&D Expenditures in Selected Countries Increase of R&D Expenditures in Real Terms R&D Expenditures as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product(GDP)
2.1.2 R&D Expenditures by Financing and Performance Share of R&D Expenditures Share of R&D expenditures by performance R&D Expense Flows
2.1.3 R&D Expenditures per Researcher R&D expenditures per Researcher,by Type of Industry
2.1.4 R&D Expenditures by Character of Work
2.1.5 R&D expenditures by Industry R&D expenditures by Industry R&D expenditures by type of manufacturing industry
2.1.6 R&D Expenditures in Japan by Sector Business enterprises10) Public Organizations11) Non-profit Institutions12) Universities and Colleges13)
2.1.7 R&D Expenditures in Japan by Type of Expense
2.2 Research Personnel
2.2.1 Researchers Number of Researchers Number of Researchers per10,000Population and per10,000Laborers Number of Researchers by Sector
2.2.2 Personnel Engaged in R&D
2.2.3 Production and Employment of Research Personnel Overall Degree Trends Employment of Research Personnel
2.3 Trends Related to Research Performance
2.3.1 Scientific Papers Trends in the Number of Scientific Papers,and Number of Citations,in Selected Countries Relative Citation Impact for Scientific Papers in Selected Countries Trends in the Number of Scientific Papers in Selected Countries,by Field Relative comparative Advantage of Japan's Scientific Papers by Field
2.3.2 Patents Patents in Selected Countries(Trends in Application and Registration) Japanese Patent Applications and Patents Granted in Foreign Countries Trends in Patent Applications and Patents Granted in Japan Foreign Patent Applications and Patents Granted in Japan Patent Applications in Japan by Field
2.3.3 Technology Trade Trends in the Technology Trade Trends in the Technology Trade Balance Trends in Japan's Technology Trade with Other Countries(Regions) Trends of Japan's Technology Trade by Industry Sector
2.3.4 High-tech Industries Trends in the Export Shares of High-tech Industries in Major Countries Trends in Export from and Import to Japan's High-tech Industry Trends in High-Tech Industry Trade Balances in Major Countries Balance of Payments for Japan's High-tech Trade,by Industries
2.4 Efforts to Develop New Science and Technology Indicators
2.4.1 Efforts by the OECD
2.4.2 Efforts in Japan Ministry of Public Management,Home Affairs,Posts and Telecommunications Ministry of Education,Culture,Sports,Science and Technology(MEXT)
Part3 Measures Adopted for Promotion of Science and Technology
3.1 Development of Science and Technology Policies
3.1.1 The Science and Technology Basic Plan
3.1.2 The Council for Science and Technology Policy Establishment of the Council for Science and Technology Policy,and It's Tasks Activities of the Council for Science and Technology
3.1.3 Administrative Structure of Science andT echnology,and the Budget Administrative Structure of Science and Technology Budget for Science and Technology
3.2 Priority Strategies for Science and Technology
3.2.1 Promotion of Basic Research
3.2.2 Prioritization of Research and Development in Response to Issues Important to the State and Society Life Sciences Information and Communications Environment Nanotechnology and Materials Energy Manufacturing Technology Infrastructure Frontier Science
3.3. Reform of Japan's Science and Technology System
3.3.1 Reform of Japan's Research and Development System Building Research and Development Systems to Produce Excellent Results Promotion and Reform of R&D at Japan's Main Research Institutes
3.3.2 Strengthening of Industrial Technology and Reform of Structure for Co-ordination between Industry,Academia,and Government Reform of Structure for Disseminating Information and Research Exchanges Aimed at Strengthening Co-ordination between Industry,Academia,and Government Developing an Environment for the Transfer of Technology from Public Research Institutes to Industry Promoting Commercialization for the Practical Use of Research Results Achieved by Public Research Institutes Developing an Environment to Invigorate High Tech Ventures
3.3.3 Promotion of Research Activities in Regional Areas Aiming Toward the Establishment of Intellectual Clusters and Industrial Clusters Various Policies on Promotion of Regional Science and Technology Supporting the Concentration of R&D Functions Consolidation of R&D Bases
3.3.4 Development and Retention of Excellent Researchers and Engineers Development of Researchers and Engineers;Reform of Universities Fostering Engineers Establishing an Ethical Code of Conduct for Researchers and Engineers
3.3.5 Establishing Channels for Communication between Society and Science and Technology Activities Promoting the Study of Science and Technology Establishing Channels for Communication with Society
3.3.6 Developing a Foundation for Promoting Science and Technology Strategic and Prioritized Development of Facilities and Equipment Expansion of Research Assistants Enhancement of the Intellectual Infrastructure
3.3. Enhancing the Intellectual Property Rights System and Actively Responding to Standardization Developing a Research Information Infrastructure Developing an Infrastructure for Manufacturing Promoting Activities of Academic Societies
3.4 Promoting International Science and Technology Activity
3.4.1 Developing Leading Activities for International Cooperation Development of Frameworks for Multilateral Cooperation Cooperation with Nations in the Asia-Pacific Region Cooperation with Nations in Europeand North America Cooperation with Russia and Nationsin Eastern Europe Challenge for International Pro-gram
3.4.2 Promoting International Research Exchanges Promotion of International Re-search Activities Promotion of Researcher Ex-changes
Figure1-1-1 Market share of high-tech industry exports in the OECD
Figure1-1-2 Japan's Market Share of High-tech Industry Exports in the OECD(by Industry) Source:OECD."Main Science and Technology Indicators2002"
Figure1-1-3 Predominant position of Japanese and foreign technology in the seventh technology forecasting survey(July2001)
Table1-1-4 Comparative results with Europe and the U.S.in a survey on the level of Japanese R&D(March2002)
Figure1-1-5 International comparison of technological capabilities from the viewpoint of Japanese private businesses
Figure1-1-6 Decline in research and development(R&D)efficiency in the manufacturing industry
Figure1-1-7Comparison between nations of the population proportion accounted for by the elderly(over age65)
Figure1-1-8Japan's population by age
Figure1-1-9 International comparison of the growth rate of knowledge-based workers
Figure1-1-10Concept diagram of human resources related to science and technology Source:Prepared by MEXT
Figure1-1-11Frame format of the knowledge creation process Source:Prepared by MEXT
Figure1-1-12Image of I-,T-,and π-type personnel
Figure1-1-13Researchers'feelings about the shortage of various HRST
Figure1-2-1Trends in the number of employed persons by occupation
Figure1-2-2Trends in labor surplus/shortage index(D.I.)by occupation in manufacturing industry
Table1-2-3Number of employed professional and technical workers by industry(2002)
Table1-2-4HSRT in Selected Countries
Table1-2-5Japan-U.S.Comparison of university graduates
Table1-2-6Number of employed university graduates by industry and academic degree(Japan)
Table1-2-7Number of employed university graduates by occupation and academic degree(Japan-U.S.Comparison)
Figure1-2-8 Age Composition of Professional and Technical Workers
Figure1-2-9 Estimate of the number of researchers and engineers in the Future
Table1-2-10The estimated number of world-class research personnel in major countries
Table1-3-1International comparison of lower secondary school students: "Do you have dreams(hopes)of pouring your passion into a field?"
Figure1-3-2Answers by students in lower and upper secondary schools to a question Whether you want to make it goal for your life"to make a new discovery in the field of science"
Figure1-3-3Reasons for wanting to become a researcher (total,and by period of first interest)
Figure1-3-4Reasons for concern over becoming a researcher
Figure1-3-5Comparison of wages of major occupations in Japan and in the United States
Figure1-3-6 Wage differentials between research workers and office workers in private businesses
Figure1-3-7Degree of satisfaction with treatment of researchers
Figure1-3-8Degree of satisfaction with treatment of researchers
Figure1-3-9 Sense of unfairness for women in hiring,promotion,and evaluations
Figure1-3-10Proportion of hires after graduation from natural science curriculums, by career type
Figure1-3-11Number of graduates by curriculum and department
Table1-3-12Gender comparisons of elementary and lower secondary school student paper test performances(average scores)in science and mathematics
Figure1-3-13Study awareness in elementary and lower secondary school students (science and mathematics)
Figure1-3-14Awareness of what other people think about studying science (second grade of lower secondary school)
Figure1-3-15Proportion of women securing academic levels,by specialty field(2000)
Figure1-3-16Reasons for the low numbers of women researchers(top three items)
Figure1-3-17Comfortable environment for women researchers
Figure1-3-18Percentage of workers wanting a change of occupation
Figure1-3-19Trends in average age(estimate)by occupation,etc.
Figure1-3-20Age composition of university teachers and of researchers at private-sector enterprises
Figure1-3-21Skill trend patterns for creativity and concept development
Table1-3-22International comparisons of what age technicians can be active on the front lines
Table1-3-23Best ways to handle middle-aged and older researchers and technicians(professors)
Table1-3-24 Treatment of elderly researchers in private-sector enterprises
Table1-3-25 Positive aspects for acceptance of foreign researchers(top five)
Table1-3-26Nationality of people obtaining doctorates in the United States (by science sector)
Figure1-3-27Number of foreign researchers and teachers residing in Japan
Figure1-3-28Distribution of foreign researchers by research sector
Figure1-3-29 Evaluation of the mobility of foreign students in OECD countries
Table1-3-30Negative aspects for acceptance of foreign researchers(top five)
Figure1-3-31Trends in number of foreigners entering Japan,by region of origin
Figure1-3-32Researcher mobility experience
Figure1-3-33Researcher's experience of mobility and their evaluation of institutions to which they belonged
Figure1-3-34Important conditions when moving to research institutions
Table1-3-35University professors in Japan who graduated from their own school
Table1-3-36Assistant professor hires at the nine University of California (U.S.)campuses(1994-98)
Figure1-3-37Problems of the fixed-term recruitment system form the viewpoint of researchers
Figure1-3-38Comparison of competitive environment in Japan,the United States, and Europe
Figure1-3-39Salary differentials for university teachers at all U.S.universities
Figure1-3-40Image of post-doctorals from researchers'viewpoint
Figure1-3-41Research expenditures at researchers'disposal(by age group)
Table1-3-42Research grants targeting representative young people in Japan (government funding)
Figure1-3-43Proportion of applications for new subjects under the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Program,and accepted subjects(FY2002)
Table1-3-44Representative research grants in the United States targeting researchers with short research histories(government funding)
Figure1-3-45Percentage of international joint authorship of scientific papers
Figure1-3-46Trend in the number of Japanese researchers going overseas
Figure1-3-47Researchers'view of the research support staff shortage
Figure1-3-48Hindering factors of research
Figure1-3-49Appeal of research activities in overseas
Figure1-3-50Main problems with personnel compensation for technological research support staff
Figure1-3-51Necessary Conditions for Educating Researchers
Figure1-3-52Elements and skills of the ideal researcher,and skills of young researchers
Figure1-3-53Content of education reforms in graduate-level science courses
Figure1-3-54Self-evaluation by graduate-level science courses that have implemented graduate school prioritization
Figure1-3-55Policies for reform and expansion of graduate schools,proposed by national university instructors
Table1-3-56Proportion of graduate school doctoral course students with part-time jobs (in2000)
Table1-3-57Income and expenditure of students in graduate school doctoral courses by type of residence(in2000)
Table1-3-58Breakdown of research activity hours of students in graduate school doctoral courses
Figure1-3-59Trends in the number and proportion of people(graduate school students) receiving grants from the Japan Scholarship Foundation
Figure1-3-60The state of implementation of economic support to graduate school students
Figure1-3-61Difference in starting salaries by type of academic degree
Figure1-3-62Difference in promotion and salary between researchers of the same(at or around40years old)
Figure1-3-63Average annual salaries in the United States,by academic level, and by number of years after academic level was obtained
Figure1-3-64Qualifications expected of new researchers hired out of graduate school, and their evaluation
Figure1-3-65Reasons why qualifications of people newly hired out of graduate schools fall below expectations
Figure1-3-66What private companies expect of universities and graduate schools
Figure1-3-67Private-sector enterprise employment of graduates of doctoral courses,and post-doctoral
Figure1-3-68Expectations placed on doctoral course graduate researchers and post- doctorals,and their displayed abilities,performance,etc.,as compared with those of researchers with Bachelor's or Master's degree
Figure1-3-69Degree of activity in young(age35and under)researchers
Table1-3-70Problems concerning employment of doctoral course graduate researchers and post-doctorals
Figure1-3-71The state of shortage,etc.of researchers by research field
Table1-3-72Factors for the shortage of researchers
Table1-3-73Responses to the researcher shortage
Figure1-3-74State of education programs targeting researchers in private-sector enterprises
Figure1-3-75Proportion graduate school students who are returnees from society
Figure1-3-76Human resource ratios and shortages in science and technology
Figure1-3-77Trend in the number of MOT programs at universities in the United States
Table1-3-78Trends in education related to technology management and intellectual property rights
Figure1-3-79Human resource development positions for industries related to Japan's four priority science and technology sectors
Figure1-3-80 Comparison between Japan and the United States regarding the public's Level of interest in science and technology related matters
Figure1-3-81Interest in science and technology information and the likes or dislikes in science in childhood
Table1-3-82Proportion of students liking arithmetic,mathematics,and science
Figure1-3-83Proportion of students who like school subjects,by grade level
Figure1-3-84Proportion of students who believe that school subjects are important, by grade level
Figure1-3-85Proportion of students who believe that study of school subjects will be useful in regular life or society,by grade level
Figure1-3-86 Change in the proportion of those who think science is useful in daily life or in the real world to the total number of schoolchildren who like science
Table1-3-87The result of the OECD survey on schoolchildren's learning attainment, "PISA2000Assessment of Reading,Mathematical and Scientific Literacy"
Table1-3-88Comparison results of the assessment of schoolchildren's achievement using the same questions as those in the previous survey in the Research on Curriculums
Figure1-3-89Degree of understanding of basic concepts in science and technology (average correct answers for11questions)
Figure1-3-90International comparisons of basic science literacy
Figure1-3-91International comparisons of science literacy,by age group
Figure1-3-92The"Science Literacy Enhancement Initiatives"and related policies
Figure1-3-93Efforts in elementary and lower secondary school education
Figure1-3-94Awareness of science and technology developments
Figure1-3-95Sources of information about science and technology
Table2-0-1Comparison of FTE value and simple head count(FY2001)
Table2-0-2Comparison of the tripolar world
Figure2-1-1(1) Trends in R&D expenditures of selected countries-IMF exchangerate conversion
Figure2-1-1(2) Trends in R&D expenditures of selected countries-OECD purchasing power parity
Figure2-1-2 Growth of R&D expenditures(in real terms)in selected countries, with FY1995 as100
Figure2-1-3 R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP in selected countries
Figure2-1-4 Share of R&D expenditures by financing sector in selected countries
Figure2-1-5Trends in overall growth in R&D expenditures,and gross domestic product(GDP)growth rates
Figure2-1-6(1)Trends in government-financed R&D expenditures-Share of R&D expenditure financed by government
Figure2-1-6(2)Trends in government-financed R&D expenditures-Share of R&D expenditure exclusive of defense-related R&D expenditures
Figure2-1-7Trends in the proportion of government-financed R&D expenditures to gross domestic product(GDP)in selected countries
Figure2-1-8Share of R&D expenditures by performance sector in selected countries
Figure2-1-9 R&D expenditure growth(in real terms)by sector in selected countries
Figure2-1-10 The contribution by organization to the year-on-year growth rate in Japan's real R&D expenditures
Figure2-1-11R&D expense flows in selected countries
Figure2-1-12R&D expenditures per researcher
Figure2-1-13(1)Trends in R&D expenditures per researcher(in real terms)
Figure2-1-13(2) Trends in R&D expenditures per researcher(in real terms)
Figure2-1-14 R&D expenditures per researcher at universities and colleges(FY2001)
Figure2-1-15R&D expenditures per researcher,by industry(top five industrialcategories)(FY2001)
Figure2-1-16 R&D expenditures by character of work in selected countries
Figure2-1-17Trends in the proportion of basic research expenditure in selected countries
Figure2-1-18Composition of R&D expenditures by character of work by sector in Japan(FY2001)
Figure2-1-19Trend in the share of development expenditures out of total research expenditures of companies
Figure2-1-20 Share of services industry in total R&D expenditures
Figure2-1-21Manufacturing industry research expenditures in selected countries,by industry
Table2-1-22 Comparison of R&D expense growth rates,by size of company capitalization
Figure2-1-23Trends in R&D expenditures for non-profit institutions and Public organizations
Figure2-1-24(1)Trends in R&D expenditures at Universities and colleges,by type of university
Figure2-1-24(2)Trends in R&D expenditures at Universities and colleges,by field
Figure2-1-25Trends in R&D expenditures by type of expense
Figure2-1-26Trends in R&D expenditures by consisting elements
Figure2-1-27Trends in R&D expenditures at Business enterprises,by type of expense
Figure2-1-28Composition of research expenditures at non-profit institutions and public organizations,by type of expense(FY2001)
Figure2-1-29Composition of R&D expenditures at universities and colleges,by type of expense(FY2001)
Table2-2-1Comparison of Japanese and U.S.definitions of researchers
Figure2-2-2Trends in number of researchers in selected countries
Figure2-2-3Trends in number of researchers per10,000population and10,000labor force
Figure2-2-4Share of researchers by sector in selected countries
Figure2-2-5Trends in number of researchers by sector in Japan
Figure2-2-6Researchers at business enterprises,by type of industry(2002)
Figure2-2-7Number of researchers per10,000employees at business enterprises(top five industrial categories except academic research institutions)(2002)
Figure2-2-8Composition of number of business enterprises researchers by field of research(2002)
Figure2-2-9Trends in the number of researchers in nonprofit organizations and public institutions
Figure2-2-10Composition of researchers in non-profit institutions and public organizations by organization and field(2002)
Figure2-2-11Trends in number of researchers in universities and colleges
Figure2-2-12Composition of researchers in universities and colleges(2002)
Figure2-2-13Share of researchers in the natural sciences at universities and colleges by field(2002)
Figure2-2-14Trends in the number of researchers at universities and colleges(five fields)
Figure2-2-15Trends in the number of researchers at universities and colleges(ten fields)
Figure2-2-16The percent of all researchers that are women
Figure2-2-17Number of research assistants per researcher in selected countries
Figure2-2-18Trends in persons engaged in R&D in Japan
Figure2-2-19Trend in the number of research assistants per researcher in Japan
Figure2-2-20 Composition of personnel engaged in R&D by sector in Japan(2002)
Figure2-2-21Degree trends in Japan(natural science)
Figure2-2-22Number of awarded degrees in selected countries(natural science)
Figure2-2-23Number of graduate and university students,and percentage of graduate school students in selected countries
Figure2-2-24Trends in career choice,by university degree level(March2002)
Figure2-2-25Employment situation in major industries,by academic field and by degree(March2002)
Figure2-3-1 Relationship between the world total for scientific papers and for citations in scientific papers
Figure2-3-2 Trends in the relative citation impact for scientific papers in selected countries
Table2-3-3 Relative citation impact in Japan,by field
Figure2-3-4Number of scientific papers in selected countries,by field
Figure2-3-5 Japan's share of scientific papers,by field
Figure2-3-6Trends in relative comparative advantage of scientific papers in Japan,by field
Figure2-3-7Trends in the number of patent applications in selected countries
Figure2-3-8Trends in the number of patents granted by selected countries
Table2-3-9Number of patent applications(granted patents)in selected countries(2000)
Figure2-3-10Number of patent applications and granted patents in foreign countries by Japanese
Table2-3-11Changes in the ratio of Japanese in patent applications(granted patents)in selected countries
Figure2-3-12 Trends in number of patent applications and granted patents in Japan
Figure2-3-13Number of patent applications and granted patents by nationality of foreign inventors
Table2-3-14 Number of patent applications by field of technology in Japan(2000)
Figure2-3-15Trend in technology trade of selected coutries
Figure2-3-16Trends in technology trade balance of selected countries
Table2-3-17 Technology trade balance between selected countries by counterpart
Figure2-3-18Trends in technology trade balance of Japan with other selected countries
Figure2-3-19Composition of Japan's technology trade,by selected country and region(FY2001)
Figure2-3-20Technology trade by region(FY2001)
Figure2-3-21Trends in technollogy trade by industry sector
Figure2-3-22Trends in technology trade balance I major industry sectors
Table2-3-23Technology trade balance of payments by trade partner country and region for major industrial categories in Japan(FY2001)
Figure2-3-24Export market shares for high-tech products by country in OECD countries
Figure2-3-25Share of high-tech products by country manufactured in OECD(2000)
Figure2-3-26Trends in imports and exports,by value,for Japan's general manufacturing industry,and the high-tech industry
Figure2-3-27Trends in high-tech balance of payment ratios for selected countries
Table2-3-28Balance of payments for Japan's high-tech trade,by industry(2001)
Figure3-1-1Points of science and technology basic plan
Figure3-1-2Council for science and technology policy(as of the end of March2003)
Table3-1-3Chairman and members of the council for science and technology policy(as of the end of March2003)
Table3-1-4 Strategies for promotion of each of the four priority sectors (September21,2003)
Figure3-1-5 Administrative structure(as of March2003)
Table3-1-6 Recommendations of the council for science and technology(FY2002)
Table3-1-7Trends in science and technology budget
Table3-1-8Science and technology budget breakdown by ministries and agencies
Table3-2-1Major research subjects in life sciences(in FY2002)
Figure3-2-2 Flowchart for establishment and utilization of human embryo stem cells
Table3-2-3Major research subjects in information and communications(in FY2002)
Table3-2-4 Major research subjects for elucidation of global-scale phenomena, and in earth monitoring technology(in FY2002)
Table3-2-5Major research subjects for building a recycling-oriented society (in FY2002)
Table3-2-6 Major research subjects on global and natural environment conservation technologies(in FY2002)
Table3-2-7Major research subjects in the nanotechnology and materials sectors (in FY2002)
Table3-2-8Major research subjects in the energy sector,excluding nuclear power (in FY2002)
Table3-2-9 Major research subjects in(natural)disaster prevention science and technology(in FY2002)
Figure3-2-10 The structure of the headquarters for earthquake research promotion
Figure3-2-11Fault zones and sea areas with announced evaluation results
Table3-2-12 Measures for earthquake surveys and research(in FY2002)
Table3-2-13Major research subjects in the area of improvement of socioeconomic foundation(in FY2002)
Table3-2-14Major research subjects in safety area(in FY2002)
Table3-2-15Satellites and payloads planned to be launched
Table3-2-16Main specification of vehicles used to launch satellites
Table3-2-17Major research subjects in marine science and technology(in FY2002)
Table3-3-1 Comprehensive list of competitive funding
Table3-3-2State of employment under the"Law Concerning the Special Measure for the Recruitment,Remuneration and Working Hours of Researchers with Fixed Term in the Regular Service"
Table3-3-3 State of the fixed-term systems introduced under"the Law concerning the Term of Office for Faculey"
Figure3-3-4Trend of the Program to Support of10,000Postdoctorals
Table3-3-5Promotion of advanced research(urgent research subjects)
Table3-3-6Fostering strategic research centers(Targeted institutions)
Table3-3-7Overview of the major public corporation engaged in research and development
Table3-3-8Major preferential for science and technology promotion(as of April2003) (Table3-3-8)
Table3-3-9 Development of large-scale and expensive joint-use facilities and equipment too difficult for the private sector (Table3-3-9) [
Figure3-3-10Trend in the number of joint research projects between national universities,etc.,and the private sector,etc.
Figure3-3-11Cumulative total of universities that have centers for cooperative research
Figure3-3-12Activity in the linked graduate school program
Figure3-3-13 Outline of"Joint Statement for the Second Summit for Business,Academia, Government Collaboration"
Figure3-3-14Trend in the number of side-work approvals at national universities
Table3-3-15Approved TLOs(Total of31institutions)
Table3-3-16State of establishment of science and technology councils at the local government level
Table3-3-17Enactments of science and technology promotion policies by local governments
Figure3-3-18Map of intellectual clusters
Figure3-3-19Project to Implement the Industry Cluster Program
Table3-3-20 Major regional science and technology promotion measures
Table3-3-21Summary of support for the strengthening of the activities and capacities of research and development and technology support functions at public research institutions
Figure3-3-22Trend in the number of graduate students
Figure3-3-23Trend in the total number of people(graduate students)receiving scholarships from the Japan Scholarship Foundation
Figure3-3-24Trend in the number of foreign students in Japan
Figure3-3-25The distribution of Professional Engineers by the field of specialization (as of end-December2002)
Figure3-3-26Five-Year Plan for Urgent Redevelopment of Facilities at National Universities,Etc.
Table3-3-27Large-scale synchrotron radiation facilities in the world
Table3-3-28Trend in the number of supporting staff per researcher
Table3-3-29 National research institutes supported under the cooperative system for supporting priority research(Selected for FY2002)
Table3-3-30The state of development of intellectual infrastructure (Table3-3-30)
Table3-3-31Measures(in brief)for distribution of science and technology information (in FY2002)
Figure3-4-1Progress of researcher exchanges in universities and research institutions,etc.
1. The Science and Technology Basic Law (Unofficial Translation)(Law No. 130 of 1995. Effective on Novem ber 15, 1995)
Chapter 1 General Provisions
Chapter 2 S&T Basic Plan
Chapter 3 Promotion of R&D
Chapter 4 Promotion of International Exchange
Chapter 5 Promotion of Learning on S&T
2. The Science and Technology Basic Plan (2001-2005) (unofficial version)(decided by the Government of J apan on March 30, 2001)
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts
1. Circumstances Relating to S&T
2. A Vision of Japan and Concepts of S&T Policy
3. Comprehensive and Strategic S&T Policies
4. Building New Relationships between S&T and Society
5. Achievements and Problems of the First Science and Technology Basic Plan
6. Basic Concepts for S&T Promotion
Chapter 2 Important Policies
1. Strategic Prioritization in S&T
1. Promotion of Basic Research
2. Prioritization of R&D on national/social issues
3. Focus on emerging fields
2. S&T system reforms
1. R&D system reforms
2. Reinforcement of industrial technology and reform of industry-academia- government collaboration
3. Regional improvement of the S&T Promotion environment
4. S&T human resource development and S&T educational reforms
5. Establishment of interactive channels between S&T activities and society
6. Ethics and responsibility to society on S&T
7. Maintenance of infrastructure for S&T promotion
3. Internationalization of S&T activities
1. Initiatives in International Cooperation
2. Enhancement of International Information Dissemination
3. Internationalization of Domestic Research Environments
Chapter 3 Missions of the CSTP
1. Basic steering of S&T Policies
2. Promotion of Research and Development in Prioritized Areas
3. Policy on Resource Allocation
4. Promotion of Nationally Important Projects
5. Settlement of National Guidelines on Important Policies
6. Evaluation
7. Follow-up of the Basic Plan
3. Statistics
(1) Trends in R&D expenditures, etc. in Japan
(2) Flow of R&D expenditures in Japan (in FY2001)
(3) Trends in composition ratios of R&D expenditures by character of work in Japan
(4) Trends in R&D expenditures by financing sector in Japan
(5) Trends in R&D expenditures by performing sector in Japan
(6) Trends in composition ratios of R&D expenditures by constituent elements in Japan
(7) Trends in number of personnel engaged in R&D activities in Japan
(8) Trends in number of researchers by sector in Japan
(9) R&D expenditures and number of researchers of companies, etc. by industry in Japan
(10) Trends in ratio of company R&D expenditures to sales figures in Japan
(11) Trends in Japan's technology trade amounts
(12) Trends in technology trade amounts by industry in Japan
(13) Trends in technology trade amounts of Japan by region and country
(14) Japan's technology trade amounts by industry and region (in FY 2001)
(15) Deflators

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