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Remaking Universities: Continuing Reform of Higher Education
Chapter 1 Why University Reform Is Needed
1. Moves Toward University Reform
2. Reasons for University Reform
(1) Progress in Scientific Research and Changes in Human Resource
(2) Rise in the Percentage of Students Continuing to Higher Education and Diversification of Students
(3) Growing Need for Lifelong Lesrning and Rising Social Expectations Of Universities
3. Recommendations of the Universitu Council and Systemic Reforms
(1) Inprovement of University Education
(2) Provision of Greater Flexibility in the Craduate School System
(3) Improvement of Short-Term Highter Education
(4) Introduction of a Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation System
Chapter 2 How Universities Are Changing
Section 1. What People Study at Universities
1. Changes in University Classes
2. Efforts to Enhance the Quality of Teaching
3. Approaches to the Inprovement of University Entrance Examinations
Section 2. Expectations of Graduate Schools
1. Creating Centers for Advanced Education and Research
2. Training Professionals with Advanced Specialized Skills
Section 3. Opening Up Universities
1. Improving Accessibility
2. Introducing Internal Revews and Self-Monitoring in Universities
3. Promotiong Closer Communication Between Universities and Communities
Section 4. Reforming Short-Term Higher Education
1. New Roles for and Reform of Junior Colleges
2. Reform of Colleges of Technology
3. Reform of Professional Training Colleges
Chapter 3. The Financial Pucture
Section 1. Allocation of Costs
1. Funding of Universities and Other Institutions of Highter Education
2. Fiscal Mechanisms at the Nationl Level
3. Students' Financial Burden
Section 2. International Comparisons
1. Allocation of Costs in Europe and the United States
2. Improvement of Highter Education in Japan
Chapter 4 Toward Further University Reform
Section 1. Creating a New Vision for Universities to Meet the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse Student Body
1. A Future Bision for Higher Education
2. Reconsidering Educational and Research Content and Organizational Structures
3. Diversifying the Entrant Selection Process
4. Reinforcing Student Service Functions
Section 2. Improving the Quality of University Education: Fostering Self-Reform Capabilities
1. Toward Independent University Reform
2. Establishing Evaluation Systems
3. Facilitating and Revitalizing Organization and Managemant
Section 3. Responding to the Demands of Globalization
1. Creating Educational and Research Centers That Contribute to the World
2. Improving Graduate Schools
3. Facilitating Exchange
Section 4. Promoting Community Acceptance of a New Vision for Universities
Lecturing via video linkups at Shinshu University.
Figure 1.1. University Reform and Unicersity Council Deliberations
Table 1.1. University Reform Recommendations by Business Organizations
An evenng class at Tohoku Gakuin University
Figre 2.1.Progress in Curriculum Reform
Small-group foreign language education at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Students retrieving syllabus information from a database at Gunma University
Table 2.1. Trands in the Use of NCUEE Examinations by Universities and Faculties
Figure 2.2. multiple Opportunities to Take National University Examinations (Scheduled for Fiscal 1996)
A Distinctive Entrant Selection System
Fugure 2.3. Reasons for Selecting a Particular Universities
Talbe 2.2.class Attendance
Figure 2.4. Study Activities Outside University
Figure 2.5. Wishes Concerning Class
Figure 2.6. Wishes Conserning Curriculum
Figure 2.7. Satisfaction with Universities
Figure 2.8. Continuity with Upper Secondary Education
Figure 2.9. Adult Srudents' Attitudes to University Education
Figure 2.10. Universities with Graduate Schools(May 1, 1995)
Figure 2.11. Graduate School Enrollment (May 1,1995)
Figure 2.12. Trends in Graduate School Enrollment(May 1)
Figure 2.13. Ratio of Graduate to Undergraduate Srudents and number of Graduate Students per 1,000 Population (international Comparison)
The Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Hokuriku.
Figure 2.14. Dicerse Graduate School Formats
Aclass led by a teaching assistant at the University of Tokyo.
Figure 2.15. Trends in Recipients of Fellow ships of the JSPS Fellowship Program for Young Japanese Researchers
Figure 2.16. Trends in the Budget for the JSPS Fellow shi
Table 2.3. Scholarship Loan Program of the Japan Schoiarship Foudation (Graduate Srudents)
Figure 2.17. Trands in Undergraduate and Graduate Srudents from Abroad (May 1)
Figure 2.18. Trends in Adult Admissions to Graduate Schools (as of May 1)
Figure 2.19. Trends in Srudents Completing Masters' Degree Courses at National, Local Public, and Private Graduate Schools
Figure 2.20 Trends in Students Completing Doctorate Courses at National, Local Public, and Private Graduate Schools
Figure 2.21. Reasons for Entering Graduate School (Traditional Students)
Table 2.4. Class Attendance
Figure 2.22. Image of Graduate Schools Before and After Enrollment(Traditional Studets)
Figure 2.23. Satisfaction with Graduate Schools (Traditional Students)
Figure 2.24. Wishes Concerning Graduate Schools (Traditional Students)
Figure 2.25. Adult Students' Attitudes to Graduate Schools
Figure 2.26. Adult Srudents' Satisfaction with Gradute Schools
Self-Monitoring and self-Evaluation reports published by universities
Figure 2.27. Implementation of Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation inUniversities(September 1994)
Accessing university information through the HEART System
Figure 2.28. Trends in the Number of Endwed Chairs and Research Departments
An experiment in mechatronics at Numazu National College of Technology.
Table 2.5. Courses in New Fiels in National Colleges of Technology
Table 2.6. National Colleges of technology with Advanced Courses
Figure 2.40. Professional Training College Reforms and Support Measures
Experiencing Cirtual Reality in a laboratory at Tohoku Gakuin University.
Figure 3.1. Breakindown of the Special Account for National Educational Institutions (Fiscal 1995)
Figure 3.4. International Comparison of Allocation of Costs of Higher Education
Table 3.3. International Comparison of the share of the Costs of Higher Education Borne by National and State/Local Governmants
Figure 3.5. Satisfaction with University Experimental and Research Facilities
Figure 3.6. Trends in the Budget for the Improvement of Facilities inNational Educational Institutions
The Tokyo Institute of Technology's Centernnial Memorial Holl.
Figure 4.1. Trends in Access to Higher Education
Students' Attitudes to Universities
Students' Attitudes to Graduate Schools
Measures to Improve Facilities of National Institutions of Higher Education
University Reform in Other Countries
1. United States of America
(1) Emphasis on Accountability
(2) Improvement of Accreditation
(3) Self-help Efforts to Improve University Finances
(4) Enhancemant of Student Aid
2. United Kingdom
(1) Integration of Higher Education at the University Level
(2) Expansion of Government Intervention Through Subsidies
(3) Introduction of Ecaluation of Educational and Research Activities
(4) Review of Treasury Funding of Tuition Fees: Universities' Self-help Efforts
3. France
(1) Establishment of New Institutions of Higher Education
(2) Response to the Diversfication of Srudents' Scholastic Ability inthe First Cycle of University Education
(3) Expansion of Nonuniversity Institutions of Higher Education in Technical Fields
(4) Exhancement of Graduate Education
4. Germany
(1) Expansion of Fachhochschulen
(2) Reduction fo the Duration of Study
(3) Enhancement of Graduate Education
(4) Restructuring of higher Education in the Former Territory of East Germany
5. Russia
(1) Diversification of completion Years, Qualifications, and Degrees
(2) Establishment and Development of Private Institutions of Higher Education
(3) Changes in University Management and the Expansion of Autonomy
(4) Funding of Hither Education in Harsh Financial Environment
6. China
(1) Expansion of the Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education
(2) Abolition of Planned Training
(3) Transition to Diversified Management and Funding by Local Goverments and Enterprises
Special Report. The Response of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
1. The Extent of Damage and Emergency Measures in the Immediate Aftermath
(1) Cooperation in Relief Activities
(2) University and Other Hospitals' Emergency Medical Activities
(3) Measures Concerning School Education
(4) Measures Concerning Entrance Examinations, Graduation, and Employmant
2. Restoration of Educational Facilities and improvement of Disaster Prevention Systems
(1) Repair of Educational Facilities and Cultural Properties
(2) Normalization of School Education Activities
(3) Study Assistanace, Scholarship Loans, Exemption from Tuition Fees, and Other Student Aid Measures
(4) Improvement of Disaster Prevention Systems in Schools and Other Educational Facilities
(5) Reinforcement of Earthquake Prediction Researchs

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