Accumulation and Application of Knowledge Gained Through Basic Research: To Enhance Japan’s Research Capability
(Provisional Translation)

2019 White Paper on Science and Technology

Part Ⅰ Accumulation and Application of Knowledge Gained Through Basic Research: To Enhance Japan’s Research Capability

Chapter 1 Basic Research to Discover New Knowledge

Section 1 Importance of Basic Research

Section 2 Current Situation of Japan’s Fundamental Capability for Science and Technology

  1. 1.Number of Papers: Declining International Share and Stagnant Participation in Rising Research Areas
  2. 2.Research Funds: Importance of Basic Research Funds to Support Basic Researc
  3. 3.Research Personnel: Decreasing Number of Newly Enrolled Doctoral Students
  4. 4.Research Environment: International Comparison of Research Hours and the Number of Research Assistants

Chapter 2 Value That Basic Research Delivers to Society

  1. 1.Realization of Blue LED that Opened the Era of LED
  2. 2.Eradicating Parasitic Infections with a Substance Produced by Bacteria in Soil
  3. 3.Development of the World's Strongest Permanent Magnet Using Abundant Iron
  4. 4.Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery That Contributed to the Spread of Portable Devices
  5. 5.Possibility of Realizing New Regenerative Medicine by Somatic Cell Reprogramming (iPS cells)
  6. 6.New Tool That Enables Precise Editing of Genome Information
  7. 7.Discovery of Superconductivity and Its Application in Medical and Transportation Fields
  8. 8.Particle Physics for Exploring the Origin of the Universe and Its Applications in Day-to-Day Settings

Chapter 3 Technologies That Support and Drive Basic Research

  1. 1.Detector That Opened a New Door to Physics (Photomultiplier Tube and Ultrapure Water)
  2. 2.Essential Equipment for Optical Experiments (Diffraction Grating)
  3. 3.Method to Make Proteins Glow While Keeping Subject Organisms Alive (GFP: Green Fluorescent Protein)
  4. 4.Technique for Observing Intact Proteins (Cryogenic Electron Microscopy)
  5. 5.Measurement Method That Dramatically Improved the Efficiency of X-Ray Crystallography(Crystalline Sponge Method)

Chapter 4 Promoting Social Application of Research Results

  • 1 System-Related Efforts to Promote Social Application of Research Results
    •  (1) Law on the Revitalization of Science, Technology and Innovation Creation
    •  (2) Tax System
    •  (3) Strategic Use of International Intellectual Property and Standardization
    •  (4) Improvement of Research Capabilities and University Reform
  • 2 System-Related Initiatives to Promote Social Application of Research Results
    •  (1) Establishment of a System to Promote Open Innovation
    •  (2) Driving an Innovation System Tapping into Regional Strengths

Chapter 5 Conclusion: Why the Accumulation and Application of Knowledge Gained Through Basic Research Are Important

Part Ⅱ Measures Implemented to Promote Science and Technology

Chapter 1 Development of Science and Technology

Section 1 The Science and Technology Basic Plan

Section 2 Council for Science, Technology and Innovation

  1. 1.Major Endevors of the CSTI in FY2018
  2. 2.Strategic Prioritization in the Science and Technology -related Budget
  3. 3.R&D Evaluation of Projects of National Importance
  4. 4.Major Deliberations at Expert Panels

Section 3 Integrated Innovation Strategy

Section 4 Administrative Structure and Budget for Science, Technology and Innovation Policies

  1. 1.Administrative Structure for Science, Technology and Innovation Policies
  2. 2.Science and Technology Budgets

Chapter 2 Acting to Create New Value for the Development of Future Industry and Social Transformation

Section 1 Fostering R&D and Human Resources that Boldly Challenge the Future

Section 2 Realizing “Society 5.0”

  1. 1.Vision of Society 5.0
  2. 2.Undertakings necessary for the realization

Section 3 Enhancing Competitiveness and Consolidating Fundamental Technologies in Society 5.0

  1. 1.Efforts necessary for enhancement of competitiveness
  2. 2.Strategic strengthening of infrastructure technology

Chapter 3 Addressing Economic and Social Challenges

Section 1 Sustainable Growth and Self-sustaining Regional Development

  1. 1.Ensuring stable energy, resources, and food
  2. 2.Achieving a sustainable society to handle hyper-aging, depopulation, etc.
  3. 3.Improving competitiveness in manufacturing and value creation

Section 2 Ensure Safety and Security for Our Nation and its Citizens and a High-quality, Prosperous Way of Life

  1. 1.Addressing natural disaster
  2. 2.Ensuring food safety, living environments, and occupational health
  3. 3.Ensuring Cybersecurity
  4. 4.Addressing national security issues

Section 3 Addressing Global Challenges and Contributing to Global Development

  1. 1.Addressing global climate change
  2. 2.Responding to biodiversity loss

Section 4 Pioneering Strategically Important Frontiers

  1. 1.The promotion of oceanographic R&D
  2. 2.Promotion of R&D in space science

Chapter 4 Reinforcing the Fundamental Capability for STI

Section 1 Developing High-quality Human Resources

  1. 1.Developing, securing and improving career prospects of human resources as intellectual professionals
  2. 2.Promoting diversity and career mobility

Section 2 Promoting Excellence in Knowledge Creation

  1. 1.Promoting academic and basic research as a source of innovation
  2. 2.Strategic enhancement of common-platform technology, facilities, equipment, and information infrastructure supporting research and development activity
  3. 3.Promotion of open science

Section 3 Strengthening Funding Reform

  1. 1.Fundamental funds reform
  2. 2.Reform of public funds
  3. 3.Integrated promotion of the national university reform and the research funding reform

Chapter 5 Establishing a Systemic Virtuous Cycle of Human Resources, Knowledge and Capital for Innovation

Section 1 Enhancing Mechanisms for Promoting Open-innovation

  1. 1.Enhancing systems of promotion in companies, universities, and public research institutes
  2. 2.Inducing a virtuous cycle of human resources for innovation creation
  3. 3.Creating “spaces for co-creation” to concentrate human resources, knowledge, and capital

Section 2 Enhancing the Creation of SMEs and Startup Companies to Tackle New Business Opportunities

  1. 1.Cultivating an entrepreneurial mentality
  2. 2.Promoting the creation of startup companies at universities
  3. 3.Creating environments conducive to new business
  4. 4.Helping initial demand and endorsing the trustworthiness of new products and services

Section 3 Strategic Use of International Intellectual Property and Standardization

  1. 1.Promoting use of IP assets in innovation creation
  2. 2.Accelerating strategic international standardization and enhancing related support system

Section 4 Reviewing and Improving the Regulatory Environment for Innovation

  1. 1.Reviewing systems in accordance to new products, services, and business models
  2. 2.Improving IP systems in response to the tremendous development in ICT

Section 5 Developing Innovation Systems that Contribute to “Regional Revitalization”

  1. 1.Revitalizing regional companies
  2. 2.Driving innovation systems that make use of local characteristics
  3. 3.Promoting policies that encourage local initiative

Section 6 Cultivating Opportunities for Generating Innovation in Anticipation of Global Needs

  1. 1.Promoting R&D that anticipates global needs
  2. 2.Developing systems to promote inclusive innovation

Chapter 6 Deepening the Relationship between STI and Society

Section 1 Promoting Co-creative STI

  1. 1.Dialogue and collaboration with stakeholders
  2. 2.Stakeholder initiatives for co-creation
  3. 3.Scientific advice for policymaking
  4. 4.Ethical, legal, and social initiatives

Section 2 Ensuring Research Integrity

Chapter 7 Enhancing the Capacity to Promote Science, Technology and Innovation

Section 1 Reforming Universities and Enhancing their Function

1.University Reform

Section 2 Reforming National R&D Agencies and Enhancing their Function

1.R&D Agency Reform

Section 3 Strategic International Implementation of STI Policies

  1. 1.Utilization of international frameworks
  2. 2.Utilization of international organizations
  3. 3.Utilization of research institutions
  4. 4.Promotion of Strategic International Activities Related to Science Technology Innovation
  5. 5.Cooperation with Other Countries

Section 4 Pursuing Effective STI Policies and Enhancing the Chief Controller Function

  1. 1.Following up the Basic Plan
  2. 2.National Guideline on the Method of Evaluation for Government R&D
  3. 3.Promoting Policies Supported by Objective Evidence
  4. 4.Strengthening the Leadership Functions of the CSTI

Section 5 Ensuring R&D Investment for the Future

Scientific and Technological Achievements Which Contribute to Daily Life

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(Planning and Evaluation Division Science and Technology Policy Bureau)