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Annual Report on the Promotion of Science and Technology 2002

Information of The Publication
Part 1 Using Knowledge to Create Society and Economy for a New Era
Chapter 1 Creating and Utilizing Knowledge - the Driving Force Behind Social and Economic Development
Section 1 Innovations - Creating Knowledge
Section 2 Developing the Society and Economy Through Innovations
Chapter 2 In the Era of Mega-Competition for Knowledge
Section 1 Foreign Countries Devoting Effort to Social and Economic Development Through Innovations
1. Intensifying International Competition Surrounding Innovation and Innovation Systems
2. Innovation Systems of Other Countries
Section 2 Innovations and Japan's Economy
1. The Stagnation in Japan's Economy
2. Japan's Innovations that Led the World
3. Innovations Required by Japan
Section 3 International Competition and Cooperation
1. International Strategies of Companies
2. International Strategies in Government
Chapter 3 Towards the Development of an Innovation System Suited to Japan
Section 1 The Current State of Japan's Innovation System in Terms of Science and Technology Activities
Section 2 Creation of Knowledge - the Core of Innovation
1. Promoting Original Basic Research
2. Securing Human Resources Rich in Creativity
Section 3 Activities for Innovations in Companies
1. Changes in Needs and Strategies Concerning Corporate Research and Development
2. Promoting Research and Development Venture Startups
Section 4 Development of Strategic Knowledge
1. Cooperation and Collaboration Between Companies and Universities
2. Regional Innovation Systems
3. Strategic Utilization of Intellectual Property
Part 2 The Current Status of Science and Technology in Japan and Other Nations
Chapter 1 Research Expenses
Chapter 2 Research Personnel
Chapter 3 Trends in Research Performance
Chapter 4 Efforts to Establish New Science and Technology Indicators
Part 3 Measures Adopted for Promotion of Science and Technology
Chapter 1 Development of Science and Technology Policies
Chapter 2 Priority Strategies for Science and Technology
Chapter 3 Reform of Japan's Science and Technology System
Chapter 4 Promoting International Science and Technology Activity
Fig. 1 Conceptual Diagram of National Innovation System
Fig. 2 Trends in Research and Development Expenses Per Company of Local Subsidiaries and the Percentage of Research and Development Expenses Incurred Overseas
Fig. 3 Trends in Strategic Technical tie-ups in Companies
Fig. 4 International Comparison of Science and Technology Activities in Major Countries
Fig. 5 Trend in the Percentage of Research Expenses Expended in Basic Research and Applied Research As a Total Research Expenses of Universities in Japan and the US
Fig. 6 Cumulative Total of Real Research Expenses in Universities in Japan and the US
Fig. 7 Trend in Percentage of Basic and Applied Research Expenses in US and Japanese Companies (Relative to Total Amount of Research Expenses)
Fig. 8 Most Required Policies to Nurture Postgraduate Students into Researchers
Fig. 9 Number of Institutions Experienced by Researchers
Table 10 Type of Institutions Experienced by Researchers
Fig. 11 Reasons Why Mobilization of Researchers is Unnecessary
Fig. 12 Number of Long Term Overseas Residents who are Overseas Students, Researchers and Teachers
Fig. 13 Percentage of Japanese People Having Obtained a PhD in Science and Engineering in the US and Who Plan to Remain in the US
Fig. 14 Progress in Research and Development Strategies
Fig. 15 Trends of Fluctuation in Research Cooperation in Companies
Fig. 16 Number of Innovations by Large and Small Firms in Most Innovative Industries in the US (1982)
Fig. 17 Barriers to Technology-Based Startups in Japan
Fig. 18 Entrepreneurial Spirit in Major Countries
Fig. 19 Venture Capital by Major Countries/Regions as a Percentage of GDP
Fig. 20 Number of Venture Companies Established Originating from Universities
Fig. 21 Achievements of Research Cooperation With Japanese Universities
Fig. 22 Problems in Research Cooperation with Domestic Japanese Universities
Fig. 23 Policies to Utilize One's Own Research Achievements
Fig. 24 Policies Required to Promote Cooperation Between Companies and Universities
Fig. 25 Concept Diagram of Clusters
Table 26 First Action Period for Patents
Fig. 27 Report of Patents Acquired in Institutions Belonged To
Fig. 28 Reasons Why Patentable Research Achievements Are Not Reported to Affiliated Organization
Fig. 29. Evaluation Concerning Company's Own Patents
Fig. 30 Reflection of Patent Rights in Conditions
Fig. 31 Concrete Reflection in Conditions
Fig. 32 Degree of Satisfaction With Conditions Among Inventors
Fig. 33 Conditions for Inventors With Expectations and Requiring Improvements

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