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Using indicators of input into research and development such as human resources and R&D expenditures, indicators of output such as number of patents and number of scientific papers, and indicators of results of innovations, such as technology trade and exports of high-tech products, including the relationships between universities and companies which are the main players in the innovation system, the characteristics of the innovation systems of various countries in terms of science and technology activities shown in the form of a pot plant are shown in Fig. 4 .
As a matter of course, resources invested do not immediately bloom as a flower in the form of achievements, but in Japan's case, the achievements as innovations are small in relation to the amount of research and development expenses invested, compared to the US, for example. This is also evidenced by the low percentage of research expenditure of universities which is funded by private enterprise, indicating the weak cooperation between industry and academia. While Japan is close to topping the world in terms of input indicators such as number of researchers and R&D expenditure, looking at indicators of results of output and innovation, while achievements are evident in terms of the quantity of patents, in the value of technology exports and the share of high-tech products, as a percentage of input they are lagging behind other major countries, evidence that they are not necessarily flowing through to Japan's industrial technical strength.
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