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Scientific Research: Opening the Door to the Future
1. Scientific Research: Why It Is Done and Who It Is For.
(1) Advanced Intellectual Effort in Pursuit of Truth
(2) Promoted Together with Education and Human Resource Development
(3) Lays the Foundations for the Advancement of Society and Humanity
2. The Environment for Scientific Research
(1) Attitudes of Researchers and the Public
(2) Changes in the Environment for Science and Technology
(3) The Science and Technology Basic Law and the Science and Technology Basic Plan - Establishing a Nation Based on the Creativity of Science and Technology
Chapter 1 Conceptual Foundations for Promoting Scientific Research
Section 1: The Significance and Role of Scientific Research
1. The Basic Nature of Scientific Research
2. Rising Expectations of Scientific Research
3. Implementing the Science and Technology Basic Plan
Section 2: The Contribution of Scientific Research to Establishing a Nation Based on the Creativity of Science and Technology
1. Science and Technology
2. The Importance of Basic Research
3. Goals for Science and Technology Administration
Chapter 2 Basic Policies for the Promotion of Science
Section 1: Improving the Infrastructure for Scientific Research
1. Recruitment and Training of Research Personnel
2. Expansion of Research Funds
3. Improving Research Facilities and Equipment
4. Development of Information and Resources Needed for Scientific Research
Section 2: Enhancing Research Organizations' Ability to Promote Scientific Research
1. Formation of Centers of Excellence (COEs)
2. Increasing Flexibility and Fluidity in Research Organizations
Section 3: Promoting International Scientific Exchange and Cooperation
1. The Significance of International Scientific Exchange
2. Frameworks for Diverse International Scientific Exchange
3. Trends in International Scientific Exchange
4. Improving Infrastructure for Promotion of International Scientific Exchange and Cooperation
Chapter 3 New Trends in the Promotion of Science
Section 1: Toward A Prioritized Research Promotion System
1. Basic Thinking
2. Prioritized Research Promotion Systems Today
3. Future Directions and Goals
Section 2: New Approaches to University-Industry Cooperation and Collaboration
1. Growing Expectations of University-Industry Cooperation and Collaboration
2. Current Situation and Achievements
3. Consultative Committee Deliberations
4. Progress toward Systemic Improvements
5. Future Strategies
Section 3: Improving Evaluation Systems for Scientific Research
1. Significance and Importance of Research Evaluation
2. Current Trends m Research Evaluation
3. Development of Research Evaluation Systems
4. Improving Research Evaluation
Section 4: Fostering Public Understanding of Scientific Research and Expanding Learning Opportunities
1. The Growing Sophistication of Scientific Research and Researchers' Responsibilities
2. The Benefits of and Need to Pass on Humanity's Intellectual Assets
3. Efforts by MESSC
Chapter 4 Domestic and Overseas Trends in Scientific Research
Section 1: The Level of Research in Japan
1. Research Levels in Terms of Numbers of Scientific Papers
2. Research Levels in Terms of Citations from Scientific Papers
3. Researchers' Perceptions of Research Levels
4. Level of Research in Japan Improving Steadily
Section 2: Trends in Individual Research Fields
1. The Humanities and Social Sciences
2. Mathematical and Physical Science
3. Information Science
4. Geosciences and Space Science
5. Materials Science
6. Electrical Engineering
7. Structural and Functional Engineering
8. Bioscience
Section 3: Science Policy in Other Countries
1. Discussion by the Group on the Science System of the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy
2. Science Policies in Major Advanced Nations
An international team excavates archaeological remains at the World Heritage site at Angkor Wat. Banteay Kdai, Cambodia.
Figure 1-1. The Importance of Scientific Research to Humanity and Society
Figure 1-2. What is Expected of Scientific Research
Figure 1-3. The Roles of Research in Private Companies and in Universities
Launching Japan's M-V Rocket.
Figure 1: Government Research Funding in Major Nations as a Percentage of GDP
Figure 2: Contribution to Research Funding in Major Nations by Type of Organization
Figure 1-4. Affiliations of the Authors of Contributions from Japan to the Science Journal Nature
The International Symposium on Disasters and Health was held in Manila in October 1996 as part of exchange activities organized under the Core University System developed by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The Core Universities for the symposium, which focused on medical science, were Kobe University and the University of the Philippines.
Figure 2-1: Breakdown of Researchers by Organization Type and Research Field (April 1, 1996)
Table 2-1: Annual Trends in the Number of Researchers
Table 2-2: Number of Teaching Personnel in Universities and Inter-University Research Institutes
Figre 2-2: Trends in Age Mix of University Teaching Personnel
Inter-University Research Institutes (Fiscal 1997)
A display at the National Museum of Japanese History
Table 2-3: MESSC Programs Related to the Program to Support 10,000 Postdoctorals
Figure 2-3: Number of People Assisted by MESSC under the Program to Support 10,000 Postdoctorals
Figure 2-4: Employment Status of Recipients of JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists
Researchers use an inverted microscope to study biological specimens collected in the Antarctic.
Figure 2-5: Number of Support Personnel per Researcher
Table 2-4: Improvements in Research Support Systems (\1million)
Figure 2-6: Trends in Research Funding by Type of Organization
Table 2-5: Trends in Percentage of Public Research Funding
Figure 2-7: Distribution of Research Expenditures by Type of Research (FY1995; Natural Sciences)
Figure 2-8: Science and Technology Expenditure in the Fiscal 1997 Budget
Figure 2-9: Breakdown of Science and Technology Expenditures by MESSC
Table 2-6: Research Categories for Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Figure 2-10: Trends in Budget for Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Table 2-7: Recent Improvements in and Disclosure of Information about the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research System
Figure 2-11: Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research. Applications and Acceptances
Promotion of basic research in selected areas
January 29, 1957: The first survey team lands on Ongul Island and names it Showa Station.
TheJapanese icebreaker Soya with the U.S. icebreaker Burton Island, which came to rescue it(second expedition, 1958)
Sakhalin dogs Taro(left) and Jiro(center), who were left to endure harsh Antarctic conditions for a year, greet the third expedition(1959)
Anrarctic surveys were temporarily suspended but resumed in 1965 with the commissioning of the research vessel Fuji(seventh expedition).
Observation rockets were launched directly into the region of the atmosphere where the aurora forms, almost 100km above the earth(11th-19th expeditions, 1970-1978)
Large quantities of meteorites were retrieved by the expedition to the Yamato Mountains(20th expedition, 1979, 1980)
Launching atmospheric observation balloons at Showa Station in 1982(23rd expedition).
The Shirase moored at the supply base for Showa Station in 1983(25th expedition).
This aerial observation base was established on bare ice on the Antarctic continent(27th expedition 1985).
A geological survey in the Botnnuten regin of Antarctica(34th expedition, 1993).
Team members deploy a marine biological sampling system offshore from Showa Station (35th expedition, 1994).
Dome Fuji Station is located 1,000km inland from Showa Station at an altitude of 3,810 meters(36th expedition, 1995).
Scientists at Dome Fuji Station succeeded in drilling into the ice sheet to a depth of 2,500 meters(37th expedition, 1996).
Showa Station today.
Table 2-8: Individual Research Costs in Fiscal 1995 (by Field)
Table 2-9: Breakdown of the Types of Research Expenditures Made by Individual Researchers
Figure 2-12: Areas Particularly Affected by Funding Shortages
Table 2-10: Means for Diversifying Funding
Table 2-11 : Current Issues Relating to Research Facilities
Figure 2-13: Availability of Essential Research Equipment
Figure 2-14: Number of Years Since Research Equipment was Purchased
Figure 2-15: Diagram of the Science Information Network
Posters Announcing the "Universities and Science" Public Symposiums
The University Museum at the University of Tokyo.
Subaru, the large infrared telescope currently under construction in Hawaii.
Figure 2-16: Exchange of Researchers in National Universities and Inter-University Research Institutes
Figure 2-17: Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research for International Research: Applications. Acceptances and Budget
Carbon dioxide recycling system.
Table 3-1: The Current State of Prioritized Research Promotion Systems
Specially Promoted Research: "Acquisition and intergenerational transmission of language and recognition skills in chimpanzees "(1995-1999). ai reads Chinese characters denoting color.
Figure 3-1: Content and Direction of Research Relating to Global Environmental Science
Figure 3-2: The Composition of Information-Related Disciplines
Table 3-2: Cabinet Decisions, etc., Concerning University-Industry Cooperation and Collaboration
Table 3-3: Research Cooperation between National Universities and Industry (Growth over the Past 10 Years)
Figure 3-3: Joint Research with the Private Sector
Joint research with private enterprise(semiconductor electronic elements).
Figure 3-4: Acceptance of Commissioned Research
Table 3-4: Establishment of Endowed Chairs and Funded Research Departments (as of June 1. 1997)
Table 3-5: Establishment of Centers for Cooperative Research
Figure 3-5: An Example of the Evaluation System for Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Research in Priority Areas)
Figure 3-6: Attitudes toward Evaluations of Projects for Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Figure 3-7 Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation in Universities (as of October 1996)
Figure 3-8 Disclosure of Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation Results by Universities
Figure 3-9: Introduction of Outside Evaluation into Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation in Universities
Figure 3-10: Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation in Inter-University Research Institutes
Figure 3-11: Establishment of Internal Rules for Research Evaluation in Inter-University Research Institutes
Figure 3-12: Researchers' Attitudes Regarding Examiners
Examples of evaluatin reports from inter-university research institutes and joint-use research institutes attached to national universities.
Figure 3-13: Researchers' Views on Evaluation Criteria
Poster for the National Astronomical Observatory's "Star Week"
A magnetoencephalograph(MEG).
Table 4-1: National Rankings of Numbers of Research Papers by Year and Field (INSPEC, CA, COMPENDEX, EMBASE)
Table 4-2: Japan's Ranking and Shares of World Totals for Citations from Research Papers by Year and Field
Figure 4-1: Trends in National Shares of World Totals of Scientific Papers
Figure 4-2: Trends in National Shares of World Totals of Citations from Scientific Papers
Figure 4-3: Perceptions of Research Levels
Figure 4-4: Perceptions of Research Levels in Individual Fields
A monomolecular film of a porphyrin-fullerine punodwoc collected on a gold surface.
A four-legged, ambulatory intelligent robot
Shares of Performance by Sector in Government-Financed R&D. 1985 and 1994
Figure 4-5: Administrative Organizations for Science in the United States. the United Kingdom. Germany. and France
Table 4-3: Numbers of Scientific Research Organizations and Researchers in the United States. the United Kingdom, Germany. and France

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