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Priorities and Prospects for a Lifelong Learning Society: Increasing Diversification and Sphistication
Chapter 1 Creating a Lifelong Learning Society
1. Why Japan Needs to create a Lifelong Learning Society
2. Efforts So Far
(1) Creating a Structure to Promote Lifelong Learning
(2) Promoting Awareness and Providing Information
(3) Creating Diverse Learning Opportunities
(4) Evaluating Leaning Achievements
3. future Challenges
Chapter 2. Lifelong Learning Today
Section 1: Who Is Learning What, Where?
1. The learning Population: Steady Growth in the Number of Adult Learners
2. Reasons for Learning: Health, Sports, Hobbies Lead; Work-Related Learners a Minority; Tendency to See Learning as an End in Itself
3. Learning Methods: Content and aims Vary with Learning Methods
4. Learning Times: Mainly Daytime Hours, Weekdays
5. Continuity of Learning: Tendency Toward ongoing Activities
6. Advancement and Attainment: High Aspiration for Improvement
7. Providers of Learning Opportunities: A Variety of Organizations Involved; Institutions of Higher Education Moveing into the Field
8. The Cost of Learning: Perception of Cost Varies with Type of Activity
9. Work-Related Learning Activities: High Activity, Even Higher Demand
10. Fostering the Ability to Learn: Inadequate Hands-on Activities During Childhood and Adolescence
Section 2. Support for Learning
1. Provision of Information to Learners: Inadequate Access to Information
2. Status of Learning Facilities: Priority on Steady Development of Facilities and Improvement of Their Use
3. Training and Pooling of Instructors: Need to Respond to Changes in Learning Formats, Utilize Volunteers
4. Government and Business Support for Learning Activities: Support for Individual Learning Initiatives Not Always Adequate
Section 3. Utilization of Learning Achievements
1. Evaluation of Learning Achievements: Varied Systems, but a Vague Concept
2. Utilization of Learning Achievements: Growing Interest in Volunteer Activities
3. Implications for Academic Advancement and Employment: Some Progress Made, but Problems Remain
Chapter 3. The Future of Lifelong Learning
Section 1. Responding to the Diversification of Learning Needs
1. Providing Diverse and Comprehensive Learning Opportunities
2. Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning Activities
3. Promoting Coordination and Cooperation Among Learning-Related Institutions and Organizations
4. Adapting to New Advances in Information Technology
5. Learning in an Aging Society
Section 2. Expanding Opportunities for Structured, Ongoing Learning at Advanced Levels
1. Expanding Learning Opportunities
2. Learning About New Issues Arising from Change
3. The Role of Institutions of Higher Education
4. Facilitating Access
5. New Directions in Job Skill Development
6. Expectations of Research and Training Facilities
Section 3. Encouraging Zest for Living
1. Family Efforts and Community Support
2. School Education
3. Enhancing and Expanding Community Activities
4. Linking Families, Schools, and Communities: Promoting School-Community Integration
Section 4. Benefiting from Learning Achievements
1. Improving Evaluation Systems
2. Promoting Volunteer Activities
3. Encouraging Recognition by Companies and Other Organizations
Elementary school children visiting a museum.
Poster for the eighth National Lifelong Learning Festival, held in Fukuoka Prefecture.
A university extension course in pottery making.
Figure 2.1. Lifelong Learning Activities in the past Year: Health, Sports, Hobbies Most Popular
Figure 2.2. Using Lifelong Learning Achievements: Learning for Life Enrichment and Health
Figure 2.3. Aims of Learning: Learning Activities intrinsically Valuable
Figure 2.4. Lifelong Learning Methods: Books and Magazines predominate
Figure 2.5. Learning methods and Fields
Figure 2.6. Learning Methods and Aims
Figure 2.7. Learning Methods and Age: Culture Centers and University of the air Popular with All Age Groups
Table 2.1. Dibersification of Learning Methods (Precentages of People Using a Method Other Than Their Main method)
Figure 2.8. Reasons for Choice of Learning Methods
Figure 2.9. Relationship Between Age and Reasons for Choice of Learning methods: Importance of Distance Rises with Age
Figure 2.10a. Learning Activities by Time of Weekb. Learning Activities by Time of Day
Figure 2.11. Duration of Present Learning Activities
Figure 2.12. desire to Advance: Strong Aspiration to Progress to a Higher Level
Figure 2.13. Reasons for Not Advacing
Figure 2.14. Target Levels for Future Learning (Mainly People Learning in Schools)
Figure 2.15. Target Levels for Future Learning (Mainly People Engaged in Nonchool Learning)
Figure 2.16. Methods of Advancement
Figure 2.17a.learning for Advancement by Time of Week/b.Learning for Advancement by Time of Day
Figure 2.18. University Selection of Adults: More Universities Providing Special Adult Student Quotas at Both Undergraduate and Graduat Levels
Figure 2.19. Admission of Special Register Students: Dramatic Increase
Figure 2.20. Status of Day/Evening corses: Growth Trend
Figure 2.21. Establishment of Evening Graduate Programs: Steady Increase
A seminar in an evening graduate program.
Figure 2.22. Cost by Fiel of Learning
Figure 2.23. Cost by Learning Method
Figure 2.24. principal Payment Methods by Learning Method
Figure 2.25. Assistance form Employer and Perception of Affordability
Figure 2.26. Percentages of Workers Particiating in Off-the-Job Training or Self-Improvement Activities (1994): Over Half of Workers Involved
Figure 2.27. Reasons for Participating in Off-the-Job training (1992)
Figure 2.28. Reasons for Self-Improvement Activities (1994)
Figure 2.29. Self-Improvement Methods of White-Collar Worers (1993): Few Workers Attending Universities or Special Training Colleges
Figure 2.30. Percentages of Workers Sent to Off-the-Job Training Institutions (1992): Little Use of Universities and Special Training Colleges
Figure 2.31. Views on the Educational Function of the Family and community
Figure 2.32. Views on Children's Lack of Hnds-On Experience
Figure 2.33. Views of Children's Free Time
Figure 2.34. Participation on Private Classes and Juku
Figure 2.35a. Views of Parents and Guardians on Juku Attendance/b. Views of Parents and Guardians on Problems Caused by Excessive Juku Attendance
Figure 2.36a. Access to Information on Lifelong Learning Opportunities: Many Feel They Have Little Access/b. Main Sources of Information on Lifelong Learning Opportunities: Much Information Obtained from Local Government Newsletters
Accessing a lifelong information system.
Figure 2.37. Development of Social Education Facilities
Figure 2.38. What Types of Facilities Should Be Available for Lifelong Learning Activities?
Figure 2.39. Utilizaiton of Social Education Facilities
Figure 2.40. Wishes Concerning Public Facilities
Table 2.2. Public Access to School Facilities (May 1, 1993): Availability Varies According to Type of School and Facilities
Table 2.3. Conditions Enabling Large Numbers of People to Study New Areas of Learning
Figure 2.41. Availability of Paid Education Leave: Percentage of Companies with Paid Education Leave Systems Still Low
Figure 2.42a. Percentage of Workers Taking Self-Improvement Leave (1994): Low Rate of Utilization/b. Days of Self-Improvement Activities (1994): Over 60% Take Fewer Than Three Days/c. Type of Leave Used for Self-Improvement Activities (1994): Ordinary Paid Leave Commonly Used
Figure 2.43. Employer Support for Self-improvement Activities (1994)
Figure 2.44. Criteria for Employer Support for Self-Improvement Activities (1994)
Figure 2.45. Trends in Numbers Taking and Passing MESSC. Approved Proficiency Tests
Figure 2.46. Evaluation of Lifelong Learning Achievements: Almost 70% Think learning Achievements Should Be Evaluated
Figure 2.47. How Should Lifelong Learning Achievements Be Evaluated?
Figure 2.48. How Do You Want to Use Your Learning Achievenments?
Figure 2.49. Trends in Willingness to Participate in Volunteer Activities
Figure 2.50. Trends in Willingness to Participate in Vlunteer Acivities (by Age Group)
Figure 2.51. Interest and Participation in Volunteer Activities: High Interset, Low Participation
Studying the tea ceremony with a volunteer instructor.
Recording a licture for the University of the Air
Figure 3.1. Priorities for Continued Learning Activities (by Current Learning Method)
A public cooking course at an upper secondary school.
Table 3.1a. Current Approaches to New Learning Priorities (by Learning Method)/b. Future Approache to New Learning Priorities (by Current Learning Method)
Figure 3.2. Project to Promote the Development of an Advanced Learning System for Citizens' Public Halls Through the Use of Communications Satellites
Remote lectures via communications satellite(A Forum on Home Education. /A Youth Education Symposium.)
Figure 3.3. Basic Conditions for Widespred Participation in Learning Activities Concerning New Issues: Demand for Active involvement of Government Agencies
Figure 3.4. Prediciting the Number of Technical and Research Staff Sent to Japanese Universities and Other Institutions: Increase Expacted Under Certain Conditions
Figure 3.5. Systems needed in Order to Enroll Technical and Research Personnel as Full-Time Students in Japanese Universities and Other Institutions of Higher Education: Financial Support and Flexible Course Formats Important
Figure 3.6. Barriers to Self-Improvement Activities: Time and Money Constraints
Figure 3.7. Employees' Expectations of Employers in Relation to Self-Imorovement Activities: Financial Assistance Tops the Wish List
Figure 3.8. Employers' Perceptions of Problems with Education and Training by Outside Education and Training Institutions
Figure 3.9. International Comparison of Fathers' Participation in Child Care: Lowa Rate of Participation in Japan
Farm activities at a Children's Nature Center.
Figure 3.10. Desired Central and Local Government Measures to Promote Volunteer Activities: Wide-Range of Wishes
Figure 3.11. Social Recognition of Volunteer Activities: Need for Social Recognition Not Unanimously Accepted
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