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Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture1999

Information of The Publication
Part1 Chapter1:Results Achieved Through Educational Reform Chapter2:The Progress of Educational Reform to Date Chapter3:Future Developments in Educational Reform Chapter4:Global Trends in Educational Reform
Chapter1 Results Achieved Through Educational Reform
Chapter2 The Progress of Educational Reform to Date
Chapter3 Future Developments in Educational Reform
Chapter Global Trends in Educational Reform
1. The Cologne Summit dealt with education as one of the main topics for the first time in the history of Economic Summits
2. Educational reform as a global trend
3. The Aims of Educational Reform
Part2 Educational Reform Q&A
Q1: They say lifelong learning is a learning activity which everyone can take part in at any time during life and in any place,but to me it seems only for adults.Could you elaborate on lifelong learning activities that are available for children?
Q2: Do you think that national universities should be more open to communities?
Q3: I have been thinking of going back to university or graduate school to improve my skills as it has been ten years since I graduated from university and started working.Is there any special system?
Q4: I have heard that there is a"University of the Air" that allows you to gain credits studying at home.What sort of university is it?
Q5: I have heard that the comprehensive five-day school week is to be introduced from FY2002,but even now with every second and fourth Saturday off,the children do not know what to do with themselves.Is the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture considering any special measures?
Q6: I would like my children to experience outdoor and daily-life activities at the weekends.How can I find out what is going on and where?
Q7: Sometimes I do not know the best way to raise my children.I live apart from my own parents and there are no local people whom I can ask for advice.What support is there for parents like me?
Q8: In future,while the number of elderly people will continue to increase,I think that there will be many children who have little contact with the elderly.Do you think it is important to increase opportunities for contact between elderly people and children?
Q9: My child is being bullied at school.I know that the best thing is to talk to the class teacher,but I just cannot do it.I am really confused about what to do.Are there any good ways to handle the situation?
Q1O: All the parents in my neighborhood send their children to cram schools(juku)until late at night so that they can go to renowned lower secondary schools.I do not know whether I should send my child to a juku as well.What is best?
Q11: I have heard that recently there has been an increase indrug abuse by children.As aparent,I am very worried.What measures is the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture(MESSC)taking to address this problem?
Q12: I understand that the Courses of Study have been revised and educational content significantly changed in the move toward the comprehensive five-day school week.What are the targets and specific details of this latest revision?
Q13: I understand that Periods for Integrated Study are to be introduced as one of the special features of the latest revisions to the Courses of Study.However,it is not clear what the Periods will be like due to their abstract nature.What precise form will these classes take?
Q14: I understand that elementary and lower secondary schools are to see a30%reduction in the content taught to students through the careful selection of educational content.Are you worried that this might lower the children's academic ability as a result?
Q15: I believe that at the upper secondary school level,it is necessary for each and every student to fully develop his/her own individual capabilities.In the latest revision of the Courses of Study at upper secondary schools,how has the educational content changed?
Q16: I believe that experience of social life,such as working at a store,is extremely useful to children.Are there any classes that incorporate hands-on learning outside the classroom in local communities as part of school education?
Q17: Are children who failed to get a compulsory education due to illness,non-attendance,or other reason unable to apply for admission to upper secondary schools?
Q18: During my first year at school,there were81children in the school year,but as we advanced to the second year one person left,leaving80students.Because of this the number of classes dropped from three to two.If student numbers drop by just one,does this mean that class numbers will drop too?
Q19: Having developed an interest in social welfare in social studies classes at lower secondary school,I went to a social welfare facility and talked to people who work there,which was most beneficial and heightened my interest further.Could we have this kind of opportunity at school to learn from people with practical work experience?
Q2O: In order to secure employment for the unemployed,I hear that people are being taken on as English and computer teachers.How far has this progressed?
Q21: No matter how much you improve educational content,in the final analysis it all depends on how the teachers teach their subjects,as they are the people who have direct contact with children.What measures are you taking to ensure that appealing teachers can be trained and employed?
Q22: I think that of course young teachers,and also senior teachers should revise their basic teaching and learn new things to draw children into lessons more effectively.What training is being undertaken to achieve this?
Q23: It is said that common sense of teachers is somewhat removed from that of people in general.What measures are being implemented to encourage teachers to look outside the classroom walls and introduce various experiences outside the school?
Q24: I have heard that a unified lower and upper secondary school education system has been accomplished,but what are these schools like?Furthermore,there are currently no such schools in the vicinity of my house and I would like to know how many more of these schools are planned in the future.
Q25: I am a lower secondary school student.I have heard that there are"integrated course"and"credit-based system"upper secondary schools where students can determine their own timetables and study a variety of subjects.What are the special features of these schools?
Q26: Public elementary and lower secondary schools which students are to enter are designated,but do students have to attend the one to which they are designated?
Q27: There is an elementary school that has been combined with a citizens' public hall near my house.Are there other schools like that?
Q28: I am thinking of creating a school where children,local people and teachers can freely participate using school buildings on Saturdays and Sundays,which are school holidays.Is it possible?
Q29: It is said to be the era of decentralization,but how will education policy change compared to now?
Q30: It is often said that schools are closed off to the community.Don'tyou think that it is essential for schools to listen to the opinions of parents and local people and reflect those opinions in school management in order to dispel such criticism?
Q31: I think it is vital that school principals show leadership in order to promote the independent development of schools with originality and innovative ideas.What measures are being taken to this end?
Q32: Japanese students are said to spend all their time doing part-time jobs and enjoying themselves and do not study seriously even though they are attending university.How are universities addressing this situation?
Q33: Nowadays,we often see the term"venture business"in the newspapers,but are universities taking steps to foster the human resources needed to start up these new businesses?
Q34: I have heard that it will be possible to graduate from university in three years.In what circumstances will this be possible?Also,will many students be eligible to graduate in three years?
Q35: I am currently studying at university and I would like to try some classes at another university.Is it possible to receive accreditation for classes taken at another university?And what about classes at a professional training college?
Q36: I would like to go to graduate school and be a researcher in the future,but my family's economic circumstances will not enable me to go to graduate school.What kind of scholarship systems are there?
Q37: I have heard that national universities are to become in dependent administrative institutions.What will national universities be like when this happens?
Q38: I have heard that it will be possible to enter university after completing two years of upper secondary school.Is that true?
Q39: For a variety of reasons,I dropped out of upper secondary school,but I would like to study history,which I have been interested in since I was a child,at university.Are there any ways to go to university despite not graduating from upper secondary school?
Q40: I have heard that there are special training colleges where students are qualified to enter university after graduation,and somewhere students can transfer to university.Is that correct?
Q41: I have heard that it is now possible to attend graduate school without graduating from university.What kind of people will be able to go to graduate school from now on?
Q42: I hear that in recent years various steps have been taken to assess the ability and aptitude of candidates more thoroug hlyin university entrance exams.What steps have universities taken?
Q43: What are the objectives of the National Center for University Entrance Examination(NCUEE)examinations?
Q44: Although there were avariety of exhibits at amuseum I went to recently with my children,it didn't seem very interesting for them to just look and read the explanations.Are there any museums with interesting in novations for children?
Q45: I have heard that there are more than17,000citizens' public halls throughout the country.What role do these facilities play in the community?
Q46: In order to raise the next generation of outstanding researchers,I think it is important for children to have the opportunity to experience the cutting-edge research being carried out in universities and other institutions.Are there any arrangements for them to do this?
Q47: I think that it is mutually beneficial for universities and industry to cooperate and collabo-rate.What measures are being taken to promote university-industry cooperation and collaboration?
Q48: Japan made its debut in the FIFA World Cup soccer championships,and we were very impressed.In2002,Japan and South Korea will co-host the World Cup,and we are expecting even great erachievements for the Japanese national team.How are preparations going for the2002competition?
Q49: When I go to lower secondary school,I' d like to play a lot of my favorite sports,but the lower secondary school that I' m going to doesn' t have an extracurricular sports club I want to join.I sit going to be easier to play?
Q50: I think that Japan's cultural properties,such as works of art,are something to display to the world with pride.I think that we should introduce our cultural properties more overseas and increase interest in them.Are there any efforts being made in this regard?
Q51: Recently I have been hearing the expression"world heritage."What is it?
Q52: Some time ago,I watched a musical on television and was very impressed.I would like to take part in a musical myself,but there are no drama clubs in my area.Are there any good opportunities?
Q53: I must have spent hours each week studying English during six years of lower and upper secondary school,but I have still not mastered it.It may be that I didn'ttry hard enough,but shouldn'tEnglish classes focus more on communication?
Q54: I know that foreign language ability is important in today's age of internationalization,but I also think that there are other things that are equally important,such as knowing about Japanese and world history and having awareness and pride as a Japanese person.What is the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture's position on this?
Q55: Can the Plan to Accept100,000Foreign Students established in1983be achieved by the beginning of the 21st century.Also,what measures have been taken to achieve it?
Q56: I have seen a lot of foreigners around the area recently,and I was wondering,how do foreigners learn Japanese?
Q57: I think that there will be an increasing need to use computers in future.What kind of lessons will be conducted in the new upper secondary school subject Information?
Q58: The Internet is extremely convenient because you can obtain a lot of information.On the other hand,it contains some problems such as invasion of privacy and uncontrollability.How will the use of the Internet in schools be handled?
Q59: I understand that the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture(MESSC)started broadcasting ELNET in July1999.What is it?
Q6O: I heard that recently the Basic Law for a Gender-Equal Society was enacted.What is a"gender-equal society"?And are there any relations between a gender-equal society and education?
Q61: Is it possible to diversify the functions of kindergartens,such as by assisting local famili- es where both parents work and households with young children?
Q62: Recently,there has been much discussion about dwindling birth rates.It seems that alt- hough some people would like to have children,they are very conscious of the burden and therefore hesitate to marry and have chiidren.What strategies is the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture(MESSC)implementing?
Q63: I understand that the government ministries and agencies will be reorganized in January 2001.What will happen to the Ministry of Education,Science,Sports and Culture(MESSC)?
Students enjoying the first swimming class of the year
(1)Establishment of the lifelong learning system
(2)Reform of elementary and lower secondary education
(3)Reform of higher education
(4)Promotion of Science
(5)Promotion of culture
(6)Promotion of sports
(7)Response to internationalization
(8)Response to the information society
(9)Enhancement of educational administration and finance
Children harvesting
Making rice cakes at kindergarten
(1)To Enhance Emotional Education
(2)To Realize the School System that Helps Children Develop Their Individuality and Gives Them Diverse Choices
(3)To Reorganize Schools Out of Respect for Individual Schools's Autonomy
(4)To Promote University Reform and Research Activities
The Cologne G8 Summit in June1999,where education was discussed as a major agenda item for the first time
Chart1-1-4-1:Chronological Table of Educational Reform in Foreign Countries
Chart1-1-4-2:Trends of Educational Reform Policies in Foreign Countries
Rafting teaches the thrills and spills of the river
A child diligently learns how to make straw sandals
Horticulture class (At a farm affiliated with the Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University)
-Takeshi Takagi:Third Grade Elementary School Student Summer Vacation Free Research Project
Implementation of the Special Selection Procedures for Adults
Implementation of Evening Graduate Schools
Implementation of Day/Evening Programs
Implementation of the Special Register System
Faculty of Liberal Arts Comprising Siix Special Areas Forging New Fields of Study
Daily-life Activity,Sense of Morals and Justice
Helping with Housework and Sense of Morals and Justice
Outdoor Activity and Sense of Morals and Justice
The Home Education Handbook,Home Education Notebook and Home Education Videos
Making"waraji"(straw sandals)
Trends in the Incidence of Bullying
Reasons for Stopping Bullying(up to two answers)
Shonai Municipal School of Hands-on Training for Living, Fukuoka Prefecture
Number of Lower and Upper Secondary School Students Arrested for Crimes lnvolving Stimulant Abuse,and the Ratio of Minors
Views on Drugs
Information Sources for Learning Experiences Regarding Drugs
Where Students Wish to Learn about the Danger and Harm Posed by Drugs
The schedule of implementation for the new curriculum
Level of Understanding in Classes
Upper Secondary School General Education Courses
Example Image of the Study of a Science Student in Upper Secondary School GeneralEducation Courses
The Nijuyon no Hitomi Statue(Let's Play,Miss) Commemorating the Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of the Author Tsuboi Sakae
Were you able to interact with your volunteer instructor and people from the community?
What kind of a week was this for you?
During the program period how much conversation was there between you and your child about your child's activities in the program?
Did your view of your child change as a result of thiis program?
Were there any changes in the students over this week?
Did your view of lower secondary students change as a result of this program?
Were there any changes in the students over this week?
Were the activities of"Let's Try Week"useful for the relationship between your school and the local community?
Through these activities,did you discover any new sides to your students which you had not noticed in school life before?
Did"Let's Try Week"make you think about your future educational activities?
Student school attendance rate in the Meiji Period
Improvements in Legal Standards for Class Sizes
Examples of Specific Class Content
Trends in Special Arrangements for Part-time Teachers
Trends in the Total Unemployment Rate(Seasonally-adjusted Rate)
Trends in the Total Unemployment Rate by Reasons for Job Hunting(Year-on-year comparison)
Contents of the Revisions to the Educational Personnel Certification Law
Introduction of elective subjects (Credits necessary for obtaining first-class teaching certificates)
Implementation System for Teacher Training
Trends in Long-term Social Experience Training for Teachers
There are three kinds of unified lower and upper secondary school.
Trends in the Number of Schools with an Integrated Course and a Credit-Based System
A School Without Fences
A school that local people can walk through and see the children studying(Utase Elementary School, Chiba City) A School Combined with a Citiizens' Public Hall Togamura Elementary and Lower Secondary School,Toyama Prefecture
Map of lbaraki Producing Centers
A pasture in the extensive grounds of Mito Agricultural Upper Secondary School
Harvesting Pears (Sashima Upper Secondary School)
Two day schedule
Table of Monthly Loan Sums
Improvements in Evaluation of Individual Academic Ability by National and Public Universities
Trends in Universities Using the NCUEE Examinations(FY200O)
Number of universities that use the university entrance examinatiion center
Implementation of cooperative research between universities and industry
Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs are the Answer to the Problem
Recent Overseas Art Exhibitions
World Heritage Sites in Japan(as of July1999)
Cultural Enrichment for Children in the Local Community
Trends in the Number of ALTs
Total Number of Long Term Residents Overseas
Number of Long Term Residents Overseas by Region
Trends in the Number of Registered Foreigners by Status of Residence (non-permanent residents)
Plan to Install Computers in the Classroom
Number of schools connected to the Internet
The ELNET System
Human Development Index(HDI) Gender Empowerment Measure(GEM)
Number of Kindergartens which Provide Daycare Outside Hours
Annual trends in the number of births and the total fertility rate
The Organization of the Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, Sports and Culture One Secretariat,seven Bureaus,one Office,one Agency
Visiting MESSC on Tours
The National Council on Educational Reform
Charter Schools:A United States Experiment
Weekly Diary of a 5th Grade Elementary School Student in2002
"I Spoke to the Minister!"-Children's Field Trip to Kasumigaseki
0Student Categories
Children Helping at Local Shopping Centers-Child Internship Program-
Kimpachi also sees Educational Reforms
"Class Disruption"
School or Juku?The Terakoya of the Edo Era
A School Boarding Program in Which Children Grow Vegetables,Tend to Animals andCook for Thernselves(Fukuoka Prefecture)
Schedule for Implementation
Children talking about life environmental studies
What are the Courses of Study?
Let's Play,Miss
Community Learning Hands-on Experience Week for Lower Secondary SchoolStudents-"Let's Try Week"(Hyogo Prefecture)
Qualification for Taking the Lower Secondary School Equivalency Examination
Elementary Schools in the Meiji Era
Comments from teachers who have participated in the social experience training
Talking to Integrated Course Graduates
Specific Examples of Change of School or School Attendance Outside School Zones
Open Classroom Project
Recipe:PTA-style enjoyable classes
Introducing Education with Local Characteristics(1)
Introducing Education with Local Characteristics(2)
Has there really been a decrease in academic ability?
What is an Advanced Science Seminar?
It has become easier to sit for the Daiken
Examples of Hands-on Activities in Museums
What are Hands-on Activities?
-Narawa Sports Club-
Revitalization of extracurricular sports club activities
A Day in the Life of K-Worker at an International Organization in Paris
The Taiwan Earthquake-Resurrecting the Taichung School for Japanese
-Various organizations support Internet usage-
International Comparison of Women's Participation in Policy and Decision-Making in Society
after word

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