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Information of The Publication
PART 1 Issues and Perspectives ofHigher Education
Chapter 1 Progress of Higher Education in Japan
1 Higher Education before World War 2
1 Overview
2 Creation of Imperial Universities
3 The University Order and the Development of Universities
4 Higher Schools
2 Higher Education after World War 2
1 Overview
2 Inauguration of New-system Universities
3 Further Development and Improvement of the Higher Education System
4 Expansion of Higher Education
Chapter 2 Current Status of Higher Education and Issues Involved
1 Scale of Higher Education
1 Scale of Higher Education
2 Trends in Higher Education Enrollments and the Systematic Planning of Higher Education
2 Current Status and Issues of Expanded Higher Education, and Its Improvement and Enhancement
1 Undergraduate Courses
2 Graduate schools
3 Junior Colleges
4 Colleges of Technology
5 Special Training Schools Offering Advanced Courses
6 Improving and Strengthening Financial and Physical Resources for Higher Education
3 Improvement of Procedures for the Selection of Entrants
1 A Brief History
2 Introduction of the NCUEE Examination
3 Allowing Students to Apply to Two or More National or Local Public Universities
4 Directions for Further Improvements
4 Student Life
1 Present Status of Student Life
2 Guidance and Assistance to Students Regarding Their Campus Life
5 The Current State of Private Institutions and Government Assistance to These Institutions
1 Spread of Private Institutions and Their Role
2 Improvement and Expansion of Private Universities and Junior Colleges
3 Various Conditions for Educational and Research Programs of Private Institutions
4 Financing of Private Institutions
5 Present State of Government Aid to Private Institutions and Various Issues Involved
Chapter 3 Direction of Higher Education Reform
1 Major Directions for Higher Education Reform
2 Enhancement of Higher Education
1 Improvements and Enhancement of Graduate Schools
2 Improvement of the System of Academic Degrees
3 Strengthening the Educational Functions of the University
3 Development of Distinctive and Diverse Educational Programs at Individual Institutions
1 Development of Distinctive and Diversified Programs at Individual Institutions and the Revision of the National Standard Regulations to Make Their Provisions Broader
2 Decrease in the Population Aged 18 and Its Impact on Higher Education
3 Coping with internationalization and with the information age
4 Diversifying Procedures for Selecting Entrants
5 Coping with a Lifelong Learning Society
1 Diversifying the Modes of Learning
2 Dealing with Students' Transfer
3 Evaluation of the Performance of Students Who Have Studied in Institutions Other than Universities
4 Promotion of Cooperation between the University and Society
6 Activated Programs in Education and Research
1 Self-evaluation and Self-innovation
2 Reinforcing Financial Resources
Chapter 4 Higher Education in Other Countries
1 Overview
1 Rapid Expansion and Diversification of Education
2 Admission Procedures
3 Educational Programs
4 Aid to Students
5 Financing of Higher Education
2 The United States
1 Diverse Institutions and Diverse Students
2 Selection of Entrants on the Basis of Diverse Criteria
3 Educational Programs
4 Student Life
5 Development of Systems for the Evaluation of Colleges
3 The United Kingdom
1 Scale and Structure of Higher Education
2 Selection of Entrants
3 Unique Mechanism for Maintaining Educational Standards
4 Substantial Scholarship Schemes
5 Reform of Higher Education Finance
4 France
1 Popularization of Universities
2 Admission Procedures
3 Educational Programs in Universities
4 Student Life
5 Administration and Finance
5 The Federal Republic of Germany
1 Expansion of Higher Education
2 Procedures for university admission
3 Educational Programs in Universities
4 Student Life
5 Administrations and Finance -A great role played by the Land government-
6 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1 Perestroika in Higher Education
2 Selection of Entrants with Emphasis Placed on Scholastic Achievement
3 Rigorous Courses of Study; and the Securing of Quality Teachers and Researchers
4 Student Life Affected by Economic Stagnation
5 Administration and Finance of Higher Education
PART 2 Recent Trends and Developments in Government Policies in Education, Science and Culture
Chapter 1 Implementation of Educational Reform
1 Educational Reform for the 21st Century
2 Progress of Educational Reform
(1) Efforts for Educational Reform
(2) Implementation of the Council's Recommendations
(3) Reorganization of the National Institute for Educational Research
(4) Activation of Local Educational Administration
3 Activities of the Central Council for Education
Chapter 2 Promotion of Lifelong Learning
1 Overview of Government Policies and Measures
2 Development of Infrastructures for Lifelong Learning
(1) Enactment of the Law Concerning the Development of Mechanisms and Measures for Promoting Lifelong Learning
(2) Development of Government Structures for Promoting Lifelong Learning
(3) Lifelong Learning Festivals
(4) Development of Relevant Mechanisms for the Provision of Learning Resource Information and Counseling Services
(5) Cooperation among Lifelong Learning Facilities
(6) Transformation of Educational and Cultural Facilities into More "Intelligent" Facilities
3 Lifelong Learning and Institutions of Formal Education
(1) Lifelong Learning and the Role of Institutions of Formal Education
(2) New Types of Educational Institutions
(3) Diversification of the Ways of Access to Formal Education
(4) Strengthening Mutual Cooperation among Different Educational Institutions
(5) Opening the Functions and Physical Facilities of Educational Institutions to the Community
4 Lifelong Learning and Activities in the Fields of Non-formal Education, Culture and Sports
(1) Diversified and Heightened Learning Demands of people
(2) New Developments in Non-formal Education and Cultural and Sports Activities
Chapter 3 Improvement and Enrichment of Elementary and Secondary Education
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Improvement of the Content and Methods of Teaching
3 Enrichment of Moral Education
4 Enrichment of Student Guidance and Career Guidance
5 Reforms in 'Upper Secondary School Education
6 Promotion of Kindergarten Education
7 Promotion of Special Education
8 Promotion of Education for Eliminating Social Discrimination
9 Improvement of Textbook Systems
10 Reduction of the Maximum Class Size to 40 and the Improvement of Other Educational Conditions
11 Improvement of the Quality and Capabilities of Teachers
12 Financial Aid to Private Schools
Chapter 4 Promotion of Scientific Research
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Increase in Research Expenditures
3 Training of Young Researchers
4 Organs for Scientific Research
5 Facilitating the Collection and Utilization of Science Information
6 Promotion of Basic Research in Key Areas
7 Promotion of Research Cooperation between University and Industry
8 Promotion of International Scientific Exchange
Chapter 5 Promotion of "Social Education"
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Enrichment of Family Education
3 Enrichment of Out-of-School Education for Youths
4 Provision of Diverse Learning Opportunities
(l) Learning Activities of Adults
(2) Learning Activities of Women
(3) Learning Activities of Old People
5 Development of Infrastructures for "Social Education"
6 Use of "Educational Media"
Chapter 6 Promotion of Physical Education, Sports and Health Education
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Promotion of Sports for All
3 Promotion of Competitive Sports
4 Enrichment of Physical Education in Schools
5 Enrichment of Health Education in Schools
Chapter 7 Promotion of Culture
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Creation of the Japan Arts Fund
3 Encouragement of Creative Artistic Activities
4 Promotion of Local Cultural Activities
5 Policies Concerning the Japanese Language, Copyright and Religious Affairs
(1) Enhancement of Government Policies on the Japanese Language
(2) Copyright System
(3) Religious Corporations and Government Services related to Religions
6 Inheritances and Preservation of Traditional Culture
7 Development of Cultural Facilities
Chapter 8 Internationalization of Education, Culture and Sports
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Development of Japanese Citizens Living in the International Community
3 International Exchange and Cooperation in the Fields of Education, Culture and Sports
4 Promotion of Student Exchange
5 Promotion of the Teaching of the Japanese Language to Foreigners
6 Enrichment of Educational Programs for Japanese Children Staying Overseas, as well as Children Who Have Returned Home from a Long Stay Overseas
Chapter 9 Information Oriented Society and the Education Sector
1 Overview of Government Policies
2 Development of Information Literacy
3 Utilization of New Information Media
4 Training of Information Engineers
5 Provision of More Information Media for Educational and Cultural Institutions and the Development of Information Networks
Chart 1-1-1 Educational System in 1919 (Graduate Course)
Table 1-1-1 Statistics of Higher Education in 1935
Chart 1-1-2 Development of the Higher Education System before World War 2
Chart 1-1-3 Historical Trends in Total Enrollment in Universities (Undergraduate Courses)and Junior Colleges
Table 1-2-1 Number of Institutions of Higher Education, 1990
Table 1-2-2 Total Enrollments in Institutions of Higher Education, 1990
Chart 1-2-4 Percentage Distribution of University Entrants by Major Fields of study
Table 1-2-3 Trends in the Proportion of the Age Group Advancing to Universities and Colleges, by Prefecture
Table 1-2-4 Trends in the Regional Capacity for Higher Education Provisions (for Universities and Junior Colleges)
Chart 1-2-1 Percentage of Students Advancing to Higher Education-An International Comparison
Chart 1-2-2 Trends in Access to Higher Education
Chart 1-2-3 Number of Universities. Undergraduate Students and Teachers, 1990
Table 1-2-5 Number of Universities classified by the number of faculties, 1990
Chart 1-2-5 Percentage Distribution of University Graduates by Their First Destination, 1989
Table 1-2-6 Trends in the Number of Foreign Students Enrolled in Undergraduate Courses in Japan, in May Each Year
(Additional statistical information)
Chart 1-2-6 Trends in the Number of Places of Entrants to Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry
Table 1-2-7 Trends in the Number of Places of Students to be Admitted to Nurse Training Institutions
Table 1-2-8 Number of Hospitals, 1 October 1988
Table 1-2-9 Number of Sickbeds at Hospitals, 1 October 1988
Chart 1-2-7 Number of Universities Having A Graduate School, as of 1 May1990
Chart 1-2-8 Enrollments in Graduate Schools, as of 1 May 1990
Chart 1-2-9 Proportion which Total Enrollment in Graduate Schools is Total Enrollment in Undergraduate Courses: and the Number Graduate School Students per 1,000 Persons of Population (An international comparison)
Table 1-2-10 Proportion of Graduate School Student Places which Have Been Filled UP, by Major Fields of Study (as of 1 May 1990)
Table 1-2-11 Trends in the Number of Foreign Students Enrolled in Postgraduate Courses (as of 1 May each year)
Table 1-2-12 Number of Master's and Doctor's Degrees Awarded (as of the end of the 1988 academic year)
Table 1-2-13 Number of Students Awarded a Master's or Doctor's Degree (1987 Academic Year)
Table 1-2-14 Number of Foreign Students Awarded a Master's or Doctor's Degree (1988 Academic Year)
Table 1-2-15 Number of Universities and Postgraduate Departments Carrying Out Educational and Research Activities in the Evening or in Other Special Periods of Time
Chart 1-2-10 Types of Structure of Independent Graduate Schools and Departments
Table 1-2-16 Number of New Graduate Schools, Departments and Courses
Chart 1-2-11 Trends in the Number of Junior Colleges
Chart 1-2-12 Trends in Enrollments in Junior Colleges
Chart 1-2-13 Percentage Distribution of Entrants to Junior Colleges by Major Fields of Study (1990)
Table 1-2-17 Mobility of Graduates from Universities and Junior Colleges. 1990
Table 1-2-18 Departments in Takaoka National College
Table 1-2-19 Departments in Tsukuba College of Technology
Table 1-2-20 Number of New Departments Aimed at the Development of Vocational Competencies (At Private Junior Colleges)
Chart 1-2-14 Trends in the Ratio of the Number of Job Offers to the Number of Graduates from Colleges of Technology
Table 1-2-21 Number and Proportion of Students Enrolled in Colleges of Technology, 1989
Table 1-2-22 Numbers of Institutions. Departments, Entrant Places, Students and Teachers in Colleges of Technology, 1990
Chart 1-2-15 Number of Entrants to Colleges of Technology, by Major Field of Study (1990)
Chart 1-2-16 Number of Students Transferring from Upper Secondary Schools to Colleges of Technology
Table 1-2-23 New Departments Set Up in Colleges of Technology
Chart 1-2-17 Percentage Distribution of Students in Advanced Courses at Special Training Schools by Fields of Study (1990)
Chart 1-2-18 Trends in Enrollments in Advanced Courses at Special Training Schools, by Fields of Study15
Chart 1-2-19 Age Range of Students Enrolled in Advanced Courses at Special Training Schools, 1988
Chart 1-2-20 Budget for the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 1990
Table 1-2-24 Higher Education Expenditures and Government Funds- An International Comparison
Chart 1-2-21 Percentage Distribution of Higher Education Expenditures by Source- An International Comparison
Chart 1-2-22 Breakdown of the Special Account Budget for National Educational Institutions by Categories of Expenditure and by Categories of Income, Fiscal 1990
Chart 1-2-23 Trends in the Percentage Distribution of the Special Account Budget for National Educational Institutions by Receipts of Income
Chart 1-2-24 Trends in the Percentage Distribution of the Special Account Budget for National Educational Institutions by Categories of Expenditure
Chart 1-2-25 Trends in Floor Areas of Building for Universities, Junior Colleges and Colleges of Technology
Chart 1-2-26 Improvements in the Entrance Examination Given by Individual National and Local Public Universities
Chart 1-2-27 Pattern of Schedule for Entrance Examination for National and Local Public Universities Designed to Allow Students to Apply to Two or more Universities (Schedules for the selection of entrants for April 1991)
Outline of the HEART System
Chart 1-2-28 Students' Answers Regarding the Meaning of Their University
Table 1-2-25 Correlation between Students' Answers Regarding "the Core of University Life" and Those Regarding the Meaning of the University
Table 1-2-26 University Students and Their Learning
Chart 1-2-29 Students' Requests and Opinions towards Classroom Lessons
Chart 1-2-30 Students' Request to University Authorities*
Chart 1-2-31 Students' Sense of Fulfillment in Their Life
Chart 1-2-32 Students' Present Anxieties and Worries*
Chart 1-2-33 Students' Observation about What Criteria Employers in Selecting New
Table 1-2-27 Average Student Expenditures, 1988
Chart 1-2-34 Student Expenditures Classified by Sex and by Types of Living Accommodation, 1988
Chart 1-2-35 Average Student Expenditures Classified by Region and by Types of Living Accommodation, 1988
Table 1-2-28 Average Amount of Student Income, 1988
Table 1-2-29 Present State of Student Aid Programs as of March 1988
Table 1-2-30 Total Number of Loans Provided by the Foundation, Total Amounts of Loans, and the Proportion of Students Benefiting from Foundation Loans, 1990
Table 1-2-31 Monthly Amounts of Scholarship Loans Provided by the Japan Scholarship Foundation, 1990
Chart 1-2-36 Trends in Enrollments in Private Institutions of Higher Education
Table 1-2-32 New Private Institutions, Faculties and Departments since 1986
Chart 1-2-37 Percentage Distribution of Entrants to Private Institutions by Major Field of Study
Chart 1-2-38 Trends in the Average Number of Students per Teacher
Chart 1-2-39 Trends in the Average Floor Area of School Buildings per Student
Chart 1-2-40 Trends in the Percentage Distribution of Receipts of Income for University Corporations
Chart 1-2-41 Trends in the Percentage Distribution of Total University Corporation Income by Purpose of Spending
Table 1-2-33 Proportion of "Special Subsidies" to Total Subsidies for Current Expenditures for Private Institutions
Chart 1-2-42 Trends in Current Expenditures for Private Institutions and in National Subsidies
Chart 1-2-43 Trends in the Total Amounts of National Subsidies for Equipment for Private Institutions
Table 1-2-34 Total Amounts of Donations to University or Junior College Corporations
Chart 1-4-1 Proportion of Higher Education Students Who Are Aged 25 or More
Chart 1-4-2 Trends in Enrollment in Higher Education, Classified by Age, in the United States
Chart 1-4-3 Average Yearly Income and Expenditure of University Students in the United Kingdom (1988)
Chart 1-4-4 Opinions of University Students in France
Chart 1-4-5 Trends and Prospect in the Number of School Leavers with Entrance Qualification for Higher Education Institutions, New Entrants, Enrollments and Graduates of Higher Education Institutions, in West Germany
Chart 1-4-6 Scale of Higher Education in the USSR

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