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3 Scientific and Technical Education
(3) Vocational Education in Secondary Schools
b Vocational Education in Other Countries

Vocational secondary education provisions of other countries are summarized as follows:

In the United States of America, vocational secondary education is provided in vocational courses of full-time comprehensive high schools and in vocational high schools, where much emphasis is put on technical subjects. According to the curriculum of the engineering course, for instance, at least a half -occasionally three-fourths -of the total class hours are devoted to technical subjects which stress practical exercise. The cooperative programs in engineering and commerce which stress actual practice under employment conditions are most popular.

In the United Kingdom, technical secondary schools offer technical and vocational education necessary for making technicians and engineers, but technical education is mainly given through the period of "further education" which is set up for working youths. Most further education programs provide with part-time vocational courses to give youths agricultural, engineering and commercial education. For the training of technicians and engineers, cooperative programs involving alternate pedods of full-time study and of supervised experience in industry, extending over a number of years, have been developed in the technical colleges.

In the United Kingdom, they have a plan that the part-time day-course of technical and vocational education in further education programs should be compulsory for two years (one day per week and more than 300 hours a year).

Vocational education in the Federal Republic of Germany is given in full-time and part-time vocational schools. The apprenticeship program is fairly popular among business enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany, and the part-time vocational school aims at training those who are continuing their practical training by a combination of theory and practice, as well as providing fuller knowledge in a given sector. The day-course of part-time vocational schools is compulsory for all students under 18 years of age, unless them are attending a school of equivalent level, such as a full-time vocational school, a continuation course or a general secondary school.

In France, technical and vocational education is given in vocational schools and institutions for technical training. The part-time vocational education is compulsory, as observed in the Federal Republic of Germany, for all working youths under 18 years of age, unless the3z are attending a full-time school.

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