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b. The Increase of Government Normal Schools

Government normal schools were established in Osaka and Miyagi in August, 1873, and in Aichi, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Niigata in February, 1874. A women's normal school was set up in Tokyo in March, 1874, and named Tokyo Women's Normal School, which held the opening ceremony in November, 1875. This School not only prepared women for teaching positions but also constituted the central government organ for girls' education. Also in August, 1875, a middle school teacher training course was inaugurated at Tokyo Normal School. This was the forerunner of the future Higher Normal School.

Though the number of government normal schools quickly increased and the coverage of their instruction expanded, soon they were facing serious problems as a result of the difficult situation of the National Treasury and changes in educational policy. Thereafter one by one they were closed down. By February, 1877, the normal schools at Aichi, Hiroshima and Niigata had been discontinued and a year later so had the schools at Osaka, Nagasaki and Miyagi, leaving only Tokyo Normal School and Tokyo Women's Normal School. Thereafter teacher training for elementary education and guidance for education at the prefectural level was carried out at normal schools set up by the individual prefectures.

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