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A: A variety of systems for research coopera-tion have been established at universities topromote university-industry cooperation.
In the past,the role of universities was basically to develop outstanding human resources as well as to have researchers developed their research based on their own ideas.Amid these circumstances,we believe that a positive resp,onse from the universities to the hopes and expectations of society will give universities a new external stimulus as well as lead to new re-search discoveries and the revitalization of educa-tion.Therefore,cooperation between universities and industry is mutually beneficial.To this end,the following measures have been taken.
Cooperative research is a system in which re-searchers from companies and other areas of industry and university researchers conduct work together on a common theme.This system has attracted heightened interest which is ex-pected to increase further in the future.
Commissioned research etc.,at universities
In this system,research is commissioned by industry and conducted by university researchers as part of their work.Acceptance of commis-sioned research is rising every year and says much about the expectations for the research capabilities of universities.In addition,grants and endowments are con-tributions that a university receives from indus-try or private benefactors to enhance scientific research and education.There are also a variety of special tax meas-ures to further promote such university-industry cooperation.
Support for the establishment of TechnologyLicensing Organizations(TLOs)
Technology Licensing Organizations(TLO)acquire patents for the inventions of researchers,find companies to use the patents and return part of the royalty irieome to the researcher and the university to enable society to make use of the research achievements of the universities.With government approval under the Law Related to the Promotion of Transfers of Universities' Technological Research Results to Private En-terprises,support ineludes grants of subsidies,debt guarantees and reduced patent fees.By September1999,eight TLOs had received ap-proval and were operating.
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