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The special theory of relativity that describes the relationship between systems that do not have acceleration each other, and the general theory of relativity that can be applied to generalized systems were established, and make the common conventional perception that space and time are the same anywhere wreck.
The theory of relativity, together with the discovery of the
splitting of uranium atoms, opened the path for the use of atomic energy, enabled
nuclear weapons and atomic power generation, and gave an inestimable social and
economic impact to human society.
In the ultramicroscopic world, quantum mechanics, which is
the theoretical framework that explains how atoms and electrons interact with
one another, as well as the structure of substances comprised of large numbers
of them, was established by many researchers. The theory was applied into many
fields, such as the technical development of semiconductors.
Up until the 1920s, protons, neutrons, electrons and photons
were thought to be four types of fundamental particles, the ultimate indivisible
units which make up substances. After the invention of the cyclotron in 1930,
however, a variety of fundamental particles started to be discovered, six types
of quarks - the elementary particles that comprise protons and neutrons - have
been confirmed to exist today.
In 1953 the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the blueprint of life was discovered, four types of bases linking opposing chains came to be regarded as the main body of genes.
By knowing about genes, it is expected to lead to applications
to wide-ranging technical development, such as diagnosis and treatment of genetic
disorders, improvements to breeds and production of hormones.
In 1929 it became clear that the universe continues to expand, and in 1946 the Big Bang theory was advocated, in which the universe is thought to start by an ultra-high temperature, ultra-high density fire ball.
With the discovery of cosmic background radiation, the Big
Bang theory came to be regarded as the standard theory of the universe.
The methodology of scientific research this century regarded the whole as an aggregation of elements, and was based on the element-reducing method of searching for the minimum unit (root) of that element.
Recently, however, as is the case with climate change and biology, situations handling complex phenomena are increasing, and with the advances in computers we are seeing the advent of "Science of Complex Systems" which attempts to clarify the mechanisms that control complex phenomena.
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