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改正後の教育基本法と改正前の教育基本法の英訳(試案)

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Comparison of the revised (2006) and original (1947) versions of the Basic Act on Education
Basic Act on Education (Act number 120 of 2006) Basic Act on Education (Act number 25 of 1947)
Preamble

We, the citizens of Japan, desire to further develop the democratic and cultural state we have built through our untiring efforts, and contribute to the peace of the world and the improvement of the welfare of humanity.
  To realize these ideals, we shall esteem individual dignity, and endeavor to bring up people who long for truth and justice, honor the public spirit, and are rich in humanity and creativity, while promoting an education which transmits tradition and aims at the creation of a new culture.
  We hereby enact this Act, in accordance with the spirit of the Constitution of Japan, in order to establish the foundations of education and promote an education that opens the way to our country’s future.

Preamble

Having established the Constitution of Japan, we have shown our resolution to contribute to the peace of the world and welfare of humanity by building a democratic and cultural state. The realization of this ideal shall depend fundamentally on the power of education.
  We shall esteem individual dignity and endeavor to bring up people who love truth and peace, while education which aims at the creation of culture general and rich in individuality shall be spread far and wide.
  We hereby enact this Act, in accordance with the spirit of the Constitution of Japan, with a view to clarifying the aims of education and establishing the foundation of education for new Japan.
Chapter 1. Aims and Principles of Education

 
(Aims of Education)
Article 1
Education shall aim for the full development of personality and strive to nurture the citizens, sound in mind and body, who are imbued with the qualities necessary for those who form a peaceful and democratic state and society.

Article 1. Aims of Education
Education shall aim at the full development of personality, striving to nurture the citizens, sound in mind and body, who shall love truth and justice, esteem individual value, respect labour and have a deep sense of responsibility, and be imbued with the independent spirit, as builders of the peaceful state and society.
(Objectives of Education)
Article 2
To realize the aforementioned aims, education shall be carried out in such a way as to achieve the following objectives, while respecting academic freedom:
(1) to foster an attitude to acquire wide-ranging knowledge and culture, and to seek the truth, cultivate a rich sensibility and sense of morality, while developing a healthy body.
(2) to develop the abilities of individuals while respecting their value; cultivate their creativity; foster a spirit of autonomy and independence; and foster an attitude to value labor while emphasizing the connections with career and practical life.
(3) to foster an attitude to value justice, responsibility, equality between men and women, mutual respect and cooperation, and actively contribute, in the public spirit, to the building and development of society.
(4) to foster an attitude to respect life, care for nature, and contribute to the protection of the environment.
(5) to foster an attitude to respect our traditions and culture, love the country and region that nurtured them, together with respect for other countries and a desire to contribute to world peace and the development of the international community.

Article 2. Educational Principle
The aims of education shall be realized on all occasions and in all places. In order to achieve the aims, we shall endeavor to contribute to the creation and development of culture by mutual esteem and co-operation, respecting academic freedom, having a regard for actual life and cultivating a spontaneous spirit.
(Concept of Lifelong Learning)
Article 3
Society shall be made to allow all citizens to continue to learn throughout their lives, on all occasions and in all places, and apply the outcomes of lifelong learning appropriately to refine themselves and lead a fulfilling life.

[added]
(Equal Opportunity in Education)
Article 4
Citizens shall all be given equal opportunities to receive education according to their abilities, and shall not be subject to discrimination in education on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin.

Article 3. Equal Opportunity in Education
Citizens shall all be given equal opportunities to receive education according to their abilities, and shall not be subject to discrimination in education on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin.
(2) The national and local governments shall provide support in education to persons with disabilities, to ensure that they are given adequate education in accordance with their condition. [added]
(3) The national and local governments shall take measures to provide financial assistance to those who, in spite of their ability, encounter difficulties in receiving education for economic reasons.

(2) The national and local governments shall take measures to provide financial assistance to those who, in spite of their ability, encounter difficulties in receiving education for economic reasons.
Chapter 2. Basics of Education Provision

 
(Compulsory Education)
Article 5
Citizens shall be obligated to have children under their protection receive a general education pursuant to the provisions of other acts.

Article 4. Compulsory Education
Citizens shall be obligated to have children under their protection receive nine-year general education.
(2) The objectives of general education, given in the form of compulsory education, shall be to cultivate the foundations for an independent life within society while developing the abilities of each individual, and to foster the basic qualities necessary for those who form our state and society. [added]
(3) In order to guarantee the opportunity for compulsory education and ensure adequate standards, the national and local governments shall assume responsibility for the implementation of compulsory education through appropriate role sharing and mutual cooperation. [added]
(4) No tuition fee shall be charged for compulsory education in schools established by the national and local governments. (2) No tuition fee shall be charged for compulsory education in schools established by the national and local governments.
[deleted] Article 5. Co-Education
Men and women shall esteem and cooperate with each other. Co-education, therefore, shall be recognized in education.
(School Education)
Article 6
The schools prescribed by law shall be of a public nature, and only the national government, local governments, and juridical persons prescribed by law shall be entitled to establish them.

Article 6. School Education
The schools prescribed by law shall be of a public nature and, besides the national and local governments, only juridical persons prescribed by law shall be entitled to establish them.
(2) The schools set forth in the preceding paragraph shall, in order to fulfill the objectives of education, provide a structured education in an organized way suited to the mental and physical development of the recipients. It shall be carried out in a way that emphasizes instilling the recipients with respect for the discipline necessary to conduct school life, and strengthening their own motivation to learn. [added]
[see (Teachers) Article 9] (2) Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall be servants of the whole community. They shall be conscious of their mission and endeavor to discharge their duties. For this purpose, the status of teachers shall be respected and their fair and appropriate treatment shall be guaranteed.
(Universities)
Article 7
Universities, as the core of scholarship activities, shall cultivate advanced knowledge and specialized skills, inquire deeply into the truth and create new knowledge, while contributing to the development of society by broadly disseminating the results of their activities.

(2) University autonomy, independence, and other unique characteristics of university education and research shall be respected.

[added]
(Private Schools)
Article 8
Taking into account the public nature of privately established schools and their important role in school education, the national and local governments shall endeavor to promote private school education through subsidies and other appropriate means, while respecting school autonomy.

[added]
(Teachers)
Article 9
Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall endeavor to fulfill their duties, while being deeply conscious of their noble mission and continuously devoting themselves to research and self-cultivation.

(2) Considering the importance of the mission and duties of the teachers set forth in the preceding paragraph, the status of teachers shall be respected, their fair and appropriate treatment ensured, and measures shall be taken to improve their education and training.

(From Article 6, above)
(2) Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall be servants of the whole community. They shall be conscious of their mission and endeavor to fulfill their duties. For this purpose, the status of teachers shall be respected and their fair and appropriate treatment shall be ensured.
(Education in the Family)
Article 10
Mothers, fathers, and other guardians, having the primary responsibility for their children’s education, shall endeavor to teach them the habits necessary for life, encourage a spirit of independence, and nurture the balanced development of their bodies and minds.

(2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to take necessary measures supporting education in the family, by providing guardians with opportunities to learn, relevant information, and other means, while respecting family autonomy in education.

[added]
(Early Childhood Education)
Article 11
Considering the importance of early childhood education as a basis for the lifelong formation of one’s personality, the national and local governments shall endeavor to promote such education by providing an environment favorable to the healthy growth of young children, and other appropriate measures.

[added]
(Social Education)
Article 12
The national and local governments shall encourage education carried out among society, in response to the demands of individuals and the community as a whole.

(2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to promote social education by establishing libraries, museums, community halls and other social education facilities, opening the usage of school facilities, providing opportunities to learn, relevant information, and other appropriate means.

Article 7. Social Education
The national and local governments shall encourage education carried out at home, in places of work and elsewhere in society.

(2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to attain the aims of education by the establishment of such institutions as libraries, museums, community halls, etc., by the usage of school facilities, and by other appropriate means.
(Partnership and Cooperation among Schools, Families, and Local Residents)
Article 13
Schools, families, local residents, and other relevant persons shall be aware of their respective roles and responsibilities regarding education, and endeavor to develop partnership and cooperation.

[added]
(Political Education)
Article 14
The political literacy necessary for sensible citizenship shall be valued in education.

(2) The schools prescribed by law shall refrain from political education or other political activities for or against any specific political party.

Article 8. Political Education
The political literacy necessary for sensible citizenship shall be valued in education.

(2) The schools prescribed by law shall refrain from political education or other political activities for or against any specific political party.
(Religious Education)
Article 15
The attitude of religious tolerance, general knowledge regarding religion, and the position of religion in social life shall be valued in education.

(2) The schools established by the national and local governments shall refrain from religious education or other activities for a specific religion.


Article 9. Religious Education
The attitude of religious tolerance and the position of religion in social life shall be valued in education.

(2) The schools established by the national and local governments shall refrain from religious education or other activities for a specific religion.
Chapter 3. Education Administration

 
(Education Administration)
Article 16
Education shall not be subject to improper control and shall be carried out in accordance with this and other acts; education administration shall be carried out in a fair and proper manner through appropriate role sharing and cooperation between the national and local governments.

Article 10. Education Administration
Education shall not be subject to improper control, but it shall be directly responsible to the whole citizens.

(2) Education administration shall, on the basis of this realization, aim at the adjustment and establishment of the various conditions required for the pursuit of the aims of education.
(2) The national government shall comprehensively formulate and implement education measures in order to provide for equal opportunities in education and to maintain and raise education standards throughout the country.

[added]
(3) The local governments shall formulate and implement education measures corresponding to regional circumstances in order to promote education in their respective regions.

[added]
(4) The national and local governments shall take necessary financial measures to ensure the smooth and continuous provision of education. [added]
(Basic Plan for the Promotion of Education)
Article 17
In order to facilitate the comprehensive and systematic implementation of measures for the promotion of education, the government shall formulate a basic plan covering basic principles, required measures, and other necessary items in relation to the promotion of education. It shall report this plan to the Diet and make it public.

(2) Local governments, referring to the plan set forth in preceding paragraph, shall endeavor to formulate a basic plan on measures to promote education corresponding to regional circumstances.



[added]
Chapter 4. Enactment of Laws and Regulations

 
Article 18
Laws and regulations necessary to implement the provisions stipulated in this Act shall be enacted.
Article 11. Additional Rule
In case of necessity appropriate laws and regulations shall be enacted to carry the foregoing provisions into effect.

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