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Home > Policy > White Paper, Notice, Announcement > White Paper > JAPANESE GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE 1993

JAPANESE GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE 1993

FOREWORD
PREFACE
Information of The Publication
CHAPTER 1. Towards the Enrichment of Culture
1 Increased Expectations for the Promotion of Culture, and Cultural Policy
1. Increased Expectations for the Promotion of Culture
2. The Importance of Communicating Culture
3. The Expected Role of Cultural Policy
4. Future Directions of Cultural Policy
(1) Enrichment of policies to nurture culture
(2) Enrichment of budget and tax systems for promoting culture
(3) Support for creative artistic activities
(4) Promotion of artistic and cultural activities at the local level
(5) Promotion of culture rooted in daily life
(6) Promotion of policy concerning the Japanese language
(7) Enrichment of the copyright system
(8) Promotion of government 'services related to religion
(9) Preservation and utilization of cultural properties
(10) Development of a cultural information system
(11) Promotion of international cultural exchange and cooperation
5. What Types of Interest Do People Display in Culture?
(1) The state of cultural activities
(2) Interest in culture
(3) What are further required in the field of art ?
(4) Familiarity with cultural properties
(5) Towards international understanding
2 Endeavors for the Promotion of Culture - Past and Future
1. Commencing Efforts for the Promotion of Culture
2. Establishment of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the Enhancement of Cultural Policy
(1) Organizational system of the Agency for Cultural Affairs
(2) The Japan Arts Council
3. Endeavors for the Promotion of Culture in Local Areas
(1) Administrative system
(2) Funds for the promotion of culture
4. Mutual Collaboration and Cooperation
(1) Collaboration among national organs
(2) Collaboration between the national and local governments
(3) Collaboration between boards of education and governor's/mayor's offices
(4) Reinforcement of mutual collaboration and cooperation
5. Future Measures for the Promotion of Culture
Outline of Budgeting for Culture
1. Budgets of the Agency for Cultural Affairs
2. Budgeting for Culture at the Local Governmental Level
3. Subsidy by the Japan Arts Fund
(1) The purpose and system of the Japan Arts Fund
(2) Outline of supporting programs
(3) Cooperation with the private sector
4. Tax Systems Relating to Culture
a. Designated nonprofit foundation
b. Donations to designated organizations
c. Fixed property tax exemption on important cultural properties, etc.
Chapter 2. Towards the Enrichment and Spread of Culture
New Creative Heights for Art and Culture
1. The Present State of Creative Artistic Activities
2. Support for Creative Artistic Activities
(1) Support for artistic activities in the private sector
(2) The National Arts Festival
3. Fostering and In-service Training of Artists
(1) Overseas Training Program
(2) Arts Internship Program
(3) Japanese Government Fellowship Program for Artists from Abroad
4. Recognition of Artists
5. Training of Art Management Personnel
(1) What is art management?
(2) Training of art management personnel
6. National Art Museums
7. Establishment of a New National Theatre
2 The Rise of Local Art and Culture
1. For Closer Contact with Cultural Activities
2. Development of Cultural Activities
(1) The National Culture Festival
(2) National Culture Festival for Upper Secondary Schools
(3) Promotion of community development by fully utilizing local culture
3. Opportunities to Appreciate Art at the Local Level
(1) Travelling Arts Festival
(2) The Children's Arts Theater
(3) Young People's Arts Theater
(4) Lower Secondary School Art Appreciation Program
(5) Touring exhibitions to local areas
4. Improvement and Enrichment of Cultural Facilities
(1) Civic halls and theaters
(2) Art museums
Promotion of "Daily Life Culture"
Private Support for Artistic and Cultural Activities
1. The Present State of Private Support for Artistic and Cultural Activities
2. Future Tasks
5 For Richer and More Beautiful Japanese Language
1. Language Continues to Change
(1) Defining national language policy
(2) National language policy after World War II
(3) Future national language policy
2. Dissemination of a Rich and Beautiful National Language
3. The National Language "Research Institute
The Global Spread of Japanese Language Education
1. An Increase in Enthusiasm Abroad for Japanese Language Learning
2. For Learners of Japanese throughout the World
(1) Training and improving the quality of Japanese language teachers
(2) Research and development regarding methods and materials for teaching the Japanese language
(3) Qualitative improvement of Japanese language institutes
(4) The Japanese Language Proficiency Test
(5) Japanese language education for lndo-Chinese refugees and returnees from extended stays in China
(6) Japanese language education for pupils from foreign countries
(7) Cooperation for Japanese language education abroad
3. The Future of Japanese Language Education
(1) Measures appropriate to the need of the Japanese language learners
(2) Qualitative improvement of Japanese language institutes
(3) Training of Japanese language teachers, and improvement of contents and teaching methods of Japanese language education
(4) Coping with an increased demand for Japanese language education abroad
7 A Copyright System for a Changing Society
1. Copyright System Revision that Corresponds to Social Changes
2. For Copyright Protection
3. International Trends and Cooperation
(1) International harmonization with regard to copyright systems
(2) Japan's role in international copyright cooperation
4. Future Tasks for Consideration
(1) Comprehensive examination of the copyright system
(2) Copyright and computer-generated works
(3) Copyright issues related to multimedia
(4) Copyright issues related to computer programs
(5) Issues concerning the rights of performers, directors and other related persons with regard to secondary use of cinema to graphic works
Administration of Religious Corporations
1. Summary of Religious Corporations
2. Authentication and the Religious Corporation System
3. Guidance Concerning the Operation and Management of Religious Corporations
Chapter 3. For the Protection and Utilization of Cultural Properties
1 Systems for the Protection and Utilization of Cultural Properties
1. Systems for the Protection and Utilization of Cultural Properties
(1) The significance of cultural properties
(2) Enactment of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties
(3) Designation and selection of cultural properties
2. For the Protection of Cultural Properties
(1) Consciousness regarding the protection of cultural properties
(2) Promoting the concept of cultural property protection and related activities
3. Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties in Local Areas
(1) Cultural properties and the role of local governments
(2) Promotion of the protection of cultural properties by local governments
(3) Museums and other facilities in local communities
Future Directions for the Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties
1. Responding to Changes in the Environments of Cultural Properties and Dealing with New Tasks
2. New Directions for Improving the Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties
(1) A broader scope of classification, and an increased degree of protection for cultural properties
(2) Enriching the infrastructure for the preservation and transmission of cultural properties
(3) Promotion ot the utilization ot cultural properties
(4) Promotion of international exchange and cooperation regarding cultural properties
(5) Systematization and reinforcement of administration for the protection of cultural properties
Promotion of the Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties
1. Tangible Cultural Properties
(1) Fine and applied arts
(2) Historic buildings
(3) National Museums
2. Intangible Cultural Properties
(1) Designation and selection
(2) Training of successors
(3) Public presentation
(4) The National
3. Folk-cultural Properties
(1) Tangible folk-cultural properties
4. Monuments
(1) Designation
(2) Preservation of historic sites
(3) The protection and utilization of historic sites
5. Buried Cultural Properties
(1) Ascertaining and publicizing the existence of archaeological and/or historical subsoil
(2) Coping with development projects
(3) Buried cultural property investigation centers
6 Historic Villages and Towns
(1) Investigation to determine preservation measures
(2) Enactment of preservation bylaws and determination of preservation districts
(3) Formulation of preservation plans and the promotion of preservation
(4) Selection of Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Historic Buildings and measures for preserving them
7 Cultural Property Information Systems
The Role of Science and Technology in Protecting Cultural Properties
1 Promotion of Cultural Property Conservation Science
(1) Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties
(2) Nara National Research Institute of Cultural Properties
2 Transmission of Techniques for the Conservation of Cultural Properties
(1) Selection and recognition
(2) Securing of repair materials
Chapter 4 Culture Connects the World
Promotion of International Cultural Exchange and Cooperation
Exchange and Cooperation for Art and Culture
1 Promotion of International Artistic and Cultural Activities
(1) Promotion of international exchange of artists
(2) Promotion of international exchange in film art
(3) The International Exchange Program of Traditional Cultural Activities
2 Promoting International Exchange at the Local' Level
3 Invitation of Artists from Abroad
Protecting Cultural Properties Abroad
1 Cooperation in the Preservation and Restoration of Japanese Artworks Located Abroad
2 Cooperation Concerning Cultural Heritage Located Abroad
3 The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
(1) An outline of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
(2) Submission of inventories for inclusion in the World Heritage List
4 Overseas Art Exhibitions
5 Improvement of the Domestic System for International Exchange and Cooperation in the Area of Cultural Properties
Collaboration for the Promotion of International Cultural Exchange
Cultural Policy in Foreign Countries
1 Cultural Policy in the United Kingdom
(1) Outline
(2) Promotion of art and culture
(3) Protection of cultural properties
2 Cultural Policy in the United States of America
(1) Outline
(2) Promotion of art and culture
(3) Protection of cultural properties
3 Cultural Policy in France
(1) Outline
(2) Promotion of art and culture
(3) Protection of cultural properties
4 Cultural Policy in Germany
(1) Outline
(2) Promotion of art and culture
(3) Protection of cultural properties
5 Cultural Policy in China
(1) Outline
(2) Promotion of art and culture
(3) Protection of cultural properties
CHART INDEX
Chart l-1-1 Spiritual Fulfillment or Material Wealth
Chart 1-1-2 Interest in Culture
Chart l-1-3 The Number of Staged Performances
Chart l-1-4 The Artist Population Classified by Fields
Chart l-1-5 Experiences of Opportunities for Cultural Appreciation during the Previous Year (Adults)
Chart l-1-6 Participation in Cultural Previous Year (Adults)
Chart l-1-7 Reasons of Not Participating Activities (Adults) in Cultural
Chart l-1-8 Experience of Opportunities for Art Appreciation Classified by Scales of Cities (Adults)
Chart l-1-9 Satisfaction with the Environments Surrounding Artistic Activities
Chart l-1-1O Recognition of Culture Existing in the Region Lived (Adults)
Chart l-1-11 Recognition of Culture Existing in the Region Lived (Students)
Chart l-1-12 Present State of International Cultural Exchange
Chart l-1-13 Degree of Foreign Countries' Understanding of Japanese Culture
Chart l-1-14 Organization of the Agency for Cultural Affairs
Table l-1-1 Outline of National Cultural Institutions, etc.
Table l-1-2 The Number of Personnel Engaged in Prefectures and Designated Cities
Chart l-1-1 5 The Number of Personnel Engaged Policy in the Boards of Education(Prefectures and Designated Cities)
Table l-1-3 International Comparison of Cultural Budgets
Chart I-1-1 6 Trends of the Budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs
Table l-1-4 Budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs
Chart l-1-1 7 Budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Itemized Category (Fiscal 1993. million yen)
Chart l-1-18 Trends of the Local for Cultural Affairs Government Budgets for Cultural Affairs
The Japan Arts Fund Logo
Chart l-1-1 9 Mechanism of the Japan Arts Fund
Table l-1-5 Subsidy from the Japan Arts Fund
Chart l-2-1 Environments Surrounding Artists' Artistic Activities
National Arts Festival Logo
Table l-2-1 Recognition of Artists
Chart l-2-2 Percentage Occupied by Halls Designed with a Specific Purpose in Cultural Facilities
Table l-2-2 The Schedule for Future National Culture Festivals
Chart l-2-3 The Number of Public Civic Halls per 100.000Persons
Chart l-2-4 In-service Training of Curatorial
Chart l-2-5 Problems Relating to Management of the Museums
Chart l-2-6 Financial Sources of Private Support for Artistic and Cultural Activities (1993)
Chart l-2-7 Leader of Private Support for Artistic and Cultural Activities (Comparison in 3 years)
Chart 1-2-8 People Interest in Private Support for Artistic and Activities
Table l-2-3 Major National Enforcement Language Council Reports and Their Enforcement
Table l-2-4 The Problems That Were Identified in the "Various Issues Regarding Modern Japanese"(Report of the National Language Council)
Table l-2-5 Titles of Volumes of the "Language Series" (Book-lets Put Out in an Explanatory Format)
Table l-2-6 Titles of Volumes of the Series "Towards the Beautiful and Rich Usage of the Japanese Language"
Chart l-2-9 Number of Foreigners Learning Japanese in Japan
Table l-2-7 Training Courses for Japanese Language Teachers at National Universities
Table l-2-8 Outline of Japanese Language Institutes in Japan
Table l-2-9 Outline of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test in 1992
Table l-2-10 The Number of Teachers Dispatched under the REX Program
Table l-2-11 Major Recent Revisions in Copyright Law
Table l-2-12 The Number of in Japan Religious Corporations
Table l-2-13 The Number of Religious Corporations
Chart l-3-1 System for the Protection of Cultural Properties
Table l-3-1 Number of Cultural Properties Designated by the National Government (July 1. 1993)
Chart l-3-2 Interest in Tangible Cultural Properties
Chart l-3-3 Attitudes about the Protection and Preservation of Cultural Properties
Table l-3-2 Consciousness about Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties
Chart l-3-4 What Extent Cultural Properties should be Preserved?
Cultural Properties Preservation Emblem
Chart l-3-5 Consciousness about Protection of Cultural Properties
Chart l-3-6 Reasons Why Cultural Properties Protection is Difficult
Table l-3-3 Number of Cultural Properties Designated by Prefectures and Municipalities
Table l-3-4 Number of National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties (Fine and Applied Arts) Classified by Periods (as of July 1, 1993)
Chart I-3-7 Number of National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties by Type of Owner (Fine and Applied Arts)
Table I-3-5 Collections of National Museums
Table 1-3-6 System of Recognition of Holders
Table l-3-7 Number of Designated Type and Period
Table 1-3-8 Number of Designated Places of Scenic Beauty Classified by Type
Table 1-3-9 Number of Natural Monument Classified by Type
Chart l-3-8 Process of Protection of Buried Cultural Properties
Chart l-3-9 Current State of Informative Materials kept on Hand by Local Governments about the Existence of Archaeological and/or Historical Subsoil
Chart l-3-10 Liaison and Adjust-rent Rules Established between Cultural Protection Departments and Other Departments
Chart l-3-11 Share of the Expenses for Excavation and Research of Buried Cultural Properties
Chart l-3-12 Map of lmportant Preservation Districts for Groups of Historic Buildings
Table l-3-10 Selection and Recognition of Traditional Conservation Techniques
Chart l-4-1 Attitudes to International Cultural Exchange
Chart l-4-2 Degree of Foreign Countries' Understanding of Japanese Culture
Table 1-4-1 Cooperation in the Preservation and Restoration of Japanese Artworks Located Abroad
Table l-4-2 Number of Heritages Included in the World Heritage List
Table 1-4-3 Overseas Art Exhibitions
Table 1-4-4 Budget of Department of National Heritage
Table 1-4-5 State of Distribution of Subsidies from Arts Councils
Table 1-4-6 Expenditures of NEA Classified by Fields
Table 1-4-7 Budget of the Ministry of Culture and Communication
Table 1-4-8 Sums and Rates of Expenditures of the Federal Government, States and Municipalities for Cultural Affairs

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