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In April 1952, Japan regained its independence with the effectuation of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, once again becoming a member of international society. Under this new situation, the Central Council for Education was inaugurated in June 1952 as the permanent advisory organization to the Minister of Education to investigate and discuss fundamentally important issues and measures concerning education in Japan.
The framework of Japan's postwar democracy-based education system was established during the occupation, but the actual development of that framework took place in the 1950s, after the effectuation of the peace treaty. Educational reform of the 1950s had two principal characteristics: the continuation of educational reform immediately after the end of the war and the rectification of reform measures that were considered not necessarily appropriate in the context of Japan's culture and tradition as well as its society and economy.
An example of the later characteristic was the enactment in June 1956 of a law concerning the organization and functions of local educational administration concerning the modalities of the board of education.
The full revision of the Courses of Study in October 1958 made it clear that the curriculum for elementary schools consisted of four areas: various subjects, moral education, special educational activities and school events. The revision also called for the creation of hours for moral education, improvement of basic academic abilities focusing on the systemization of subjects and the enhancement of scientific and technological education.
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